Each year, more than half a million people go to emergency rooms for kidney stone problems. It is thought that one in ten people will have a kidney stone at some time in their lives. The number of people in the United States with kidney stones has been increasing over the past 30 years. In the late 1970s, less than 4% of the population had kidney stones; by the early 1990s, more than 5%. The rates are continuing to increase. The peak age for stones is between 20 years and 50 years. White Americans are more prone to develop kidney stones than African Americans, and men are much more likely to develop stones than women. Other disease like high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, ...view middle of the document...
Oxalate is present in certain foods. Diseases of the small intestine increase the risk of forming calcium oxalate stones. Cystine stones can form in people who have cystinuria. This disorder runs in families and affects both men and women. Struvite stone are mostly found in women who have a urinary tract infection. Theses stones can grow very large and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder. Uric acid stones are more common in men than in women. They can occur with gout or chemotherapy. Other substances also can form stones.
The main symptom of Kidney stones is severe pain that starts suddenly and may go away suddenly:
• Pain may be felt in the belly area or side of the back
• Pain may move to groin area (groin pain) or testicles (testicle pain)
Other symptoms include:
• Abnormal urine color
• Blood in the urine
• Pain can be severe enough to need narcotic pain relievers. The belly area (abdomen) or back might feel tender to the touch (Pietrow, 2007).
Test for Kidney stones include:
• Analysis of the stone to show what type of stone it is
• Uric acid level
• Urinalysis to see crystals and red blood cells in urine (Chandhoke, 2007)
Stones or a blockage of the ureter can be seen on:
• Abdominal CT scan
• Abdominal/kidney MRI
• Abdominal x-rays
• Kidney ultrasound
• Tests may show high levels of calcium, oxylate, or uric acid in the urine or blood.
The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and prevent further symptoms. Kidney stones that are small enough usually pass on their own. Treatment varies depending on the type of stone and how severe the symptoms are. People with severe symptoms might need to be hospitalized.
When the stone passes, the urine should be strained and the stone saves and tested to determine the type. Drink at least 6-8 glasses of water per day to produce a large amount of urine. Some people...