The purpose of this research is to test a theoretical model of relations between job design (eg: completeness, demand of responsibility, demand of cooperation, cognitive demand, and learning opportunities) and the reflexivity and learning process within natural group works in industry. The methodology used in this research are based on the detailed task analyses and questionnaires from 40 work groups at the shop-floor level in manufacturing industry in Sweden. From this research, it is found that in a group work, reflexivity and learning processes is strongly affected by job design and work routines. The four dimensions on job design which are completeness, demand of cooperation, ...view middle of the document...
2.2 Reflexivity and Learning in Groups
The interaction process of group learning can be characterized as habitual work and social routines while Meta routines involve reflexivity and the discussion of hoe habits might delay effectiveness, creativity and change.
The habitual social routines can be described in terms of potency, social support, workload sharing and communication or cooperation. This routines that predict team learning are informal interactions, interpersonal understanding, proactive in problem-solving and creating clear work procedures. Therefore, it can be seen that collective reflexivity can be assigned to meta-routines and it is an essential part of team learning.
2.3 Job Design and Task Analysis
2.3.1 Completeness of work
Completeness refers to hierarchical completeness in terms of cognitive demand (work tasks that varies in cognitive demand and also put challenging demands on the individual) and sequential completeness (planning, executing and feedback). The completeness of work factors including autonomy, task variety, participation, task significance and task identity and etc. The first hypothesis made by the researcher is completeness correlates positively with Reflexivity and Learning Process, as constrained work activities offer little freedom of choice and hence provide little input to discussions about how to perform or change and develop the work.
2.3.2 Demand of Cooperation
It is already known that in industry, the production line will be divided into segments where the task done by the groups can be done individually and the work itself does not require cooperation. Campion et al. (1996) showed that the degree of dependency between group members affects group processes. The other researcher proved that demand on cooperation in terms of cooperation, amount of cooperation and the content of communication are important factors of the job’s inherent learning opportunities. The second hypothesis is demand of cooperation is positively correlated with reflexivity and learning processes as more close cooperation will provide more themes that have to be solved in the group.
2.3.3 Demand of Responsibility
Responsibility in the production line including the responsibility of fulfillment of quantity targets, target dates or for the adherence to quality parameters of the individual’s own tasks. A well-designed job gives opportunities to decide autonomously, in connection with acceptance of individual and common responsibility for areas of work. The third hypothesis is demand of responsibility is positively correlated with reflexivity and learning processes as the individual and common responsibilities need to be clarified within the groups.
2.3.4 Cognitive Demand
A well-designed job provides opportunities to deal with the demanding tasks i.e tasks that mentally stimulating and require creativity. A challenging task has shown to be and importance factor in a development of an...