Nutr 3330 Essay

1247 words - 5 pages

Vitamin Definition:
1) Organic compound
2) Natural component of food
3) Essential for normal physiological function
4) Specific deficiency syndrome
5) Not synthesized by the host in amounts adequate to meet normal physiological needs

Water Soluble Vitamins:
- Ex. Vitamin B & C
- Dissolve in water (hydrophillics)
- Cannot be stored, daily supply necessary
- Move directly into blood; travel freely
- Easily taken up & released by body tissues
- Excess amounts excreted in urine

Fat Soluble Vitamins:
- Ex. Vitamin A, D, E, K
- Cannot dissolve in water (hydrophobic)
- Dissolve in fat (dietary and body)
- Need dietary fat to be absorbed
- Enter blood via lymph; need transport ...view middle of the document...

.. and their respective phosphates
o Phosphorylated in foods, removed by intestinal enzymes, taken up by tissues and rephosphorylated
o Urinary excretion = 4-pyridoxic acid
o Co-enzyme form = pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)
 Riboflavin needed to convert pyridoxine to PLP

- Metabolic Role:
o Amino acid metabolism:
 Transamination
 R-group interconversion (serine/glycine)
 Decarboxylations
 Recall Tryptophan metabolism: Kynurenine Pathway (niacin)
 Schiff base:
• Allows PLP to effectively facilitate amino acid metabolism
• PLP binds to enzyme
• Link formed between PLP aldehyde group and enzyme amino group (lysine)
• Forms an IMINE group
o Nervous system metabolism:
 Synthesis of neurotransmittiers involve PLP-dependent enzymes
o Hormone function:
 PLP can bind to steroid hormone receptors
 Inhibits binding of hormone – decreases effects
o Glycogen breakdown:
 PLP involved in glycogenolysis
 Coenzyme for glycogen phosphorylase (converts glycogen to glucose)
o Red Blood Cell formation:
 Involved in the synthesis of heme
 Pyridoxal (PL) and PLP are able to bind to hemoglobin molecule (affect on oxygen delivery unknown)
o Immune function:
 Likely related to PLP role as a coenzyme for enzyme involved in mobilization of single-carbon functional groups
 Serine-OH methyltransferase (see Homocysteine)
 Synthesis of nucleic acid (DNA & RNA)
- Diagnostic:
o Load tests:
 Typtophan load test
• Impaired conversion to niacin
• Build up of urinary kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid
 Methionine load test
• 4 PLP-dependent steps in methionine metabolism
• Methionine  cysteine impaired; more methionine
o Other:
 4-pyridoxic acid
 Absent when deficient
- Deficiency:
o Nervous system:
 Irritability, depression, confusion
 Sleeplessness
o Dermatitis; cheilosis, stomatitis
o Similar to riboflavin deficiency; recall that it needs riboflavin to get it into its coenzyme form
- Drug Interactions:
o Anti-TB and anti-convulsant medication efficacy can be hinder by high dose of B6 and deplete B6

Cobalamin (Vitamin B12):
- Structure:
o Largest and most complex of the B vitamins
o Cobalt is the central part of the structure
 R groups:
• Methyl = methyl-cobalamin
• Adenosyl =...

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