This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Nutrition Essay

1845 words - 8 pages

Interpreting and understanding meta-analysis graphs
A practical guide
Ideally, clinical decision making ought to be based on the latest evidence available. However, to keep abreast with the continuously increasing number of publications in health research, a primary health care professional would need to read an unsurmountable number of articles every day covered in more than 13 million references and over 4800 biomedical and health journals in Medline alone.1 With the view to address this challenge, the systematic review method was developed.2 This article provides a practical guide for appraising systematic reviews for relevance to clinical practice and interpreting meta-analysis graphs ...view middle of the document...

karin.ried@adelaide.edu.au

Meta-analysis graphs
Meta-analysis results are commonly displayed graphically as ‘forest plots’. Figures 1 and 2 give examples of metaanalysis graphs. Figure 1 illustrates a graph with a binary outcome variable whereas Figure 2 depicts a forest plot with a continuous outcome variable. Some features of meta-analyses using binary and continuous variables and outcome measures are compared in Table 2. The majority of meta-analyses combine data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), which compare the outcomes between an intervention group and a control group. While outcomes for binary variables are expressed as ratios, continuous outcomes measures are usually expressed as ‘weighted mean difference (WMD)’ in metaanalyses (Table 2). The details of the meta-analysis are commonly displayed above the graph: • review: title/research question of the systematic review and meta-analysis • comparison: intervention versus control group; a range of comparisons may have been done in a systematic review, and • outcome: the primary outcome measure analysed and depicted in the graph below. Meta-analysis graphs can principally be divided into six columns. Individual study results are displayed in rows. The first column (‘study’) lists the individual study IDs included in the meta-analysis, usually the first author and year are displayed. The second column relates to the intervention groups, and the third column to the control groups. • Figure 1: in meta-analyses with binary outcomes (eg. disease/no disease) the individual study findings are displayed as ‘n/N’, whereby: n = the number of participants with the outcome (eg. Figure 1. Adverse

Critical appraisal of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
It is important to assess the methods and quality of the systematic review and appropriateness of the

Reprinted from Australian Family Physician Vol. 35, No. 8, August 2006 635

PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Interpreting and understanding meta-analysis graphs – a practical guide

Table 1. Assessment of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
When can a systematic review and meta-analysis give further insight into primary study results? • Existing studies gave disparate results • Bigger study population (sample size) can increase power, generalisability and precision of findings (effect estimate) • Subgroup analyses may be possible and could generate new hypotheses Is the meta-analysis clinically sensible? • Did the studies summarised in the systematic review address the same research question? • Are the studies included in the meta-analysis of comparable quality (selection bias, attrition rates, confounding variables)? • Are the studies comparable (eg. population, duration/dosage of treatment)? Will the results help in caring for my patients? • Are the studied populations comparable to my patients? • Are the results clinically important? • Are all clinically important outcomes considered? • Were benefits, harms and costs considered?

...

Other Papers Like Nutrition

Health, Nutrition And Wellness Essay

8392 words - 34 pages Let’s also discuss the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. What happens to the developing fetus and mother during each stage? How is nutrition involved in each trimester? First trimester The first trimester of pregnancy is marked by an invisible — yet amazing — transformation. And it happens quickly. Hormones trigger your body to begin nourishing the baby even before tests and a physical exam can confirm the pregnancy

Educating Our Children About Nutrition Essay

904 words - 4 pages Educating our Children about Nutrition I just read an

During My Three-Day Food Intake I Learned About Myself. There Are Many Benefits Of Good Nutrition. ”Medical Online” States “Besides Helping You Maintain A Healthy Weight, Good Nutrition Is Essential...

355 words - 2 pages During my three-day food intake I learned about myself. There are many benefits of good nutrition. ”Medical Online” states “besides helping you maintain a healthy weight, good nutrition is essential for the body and all its system to function optimally for a lifetime.” A healthy diet promotes good sleep, gives the body what it needs to stay healthy, and provides energy. According to “Mealtime Memo” Good nutrition means getting the calories

Culrure Versus Rituals

434 words - 2 pages In many communities today there can be found different types of nutrition programs that are funded by various entities such as; non-profit organizations, government agencies etc. These programs are provided mainly to prevent and/ or reduce deprivation for individuals and communities. Even though the aim of these nutrition programs is to foster and maintain health there is still a large portion of these individuals that are malnourished and has

Benefits Of Dehydration In The Terminally Ill

1273 words - 6 pages Therapeutic Benefits of Dehydration in the Terminally Ill Excelsior College Missy Robinson January 8, 2012 In many societies, there is close relationship associated with food and caring. The giving of food is often considered to represent compassion in the minds of most people. It is not surprising that the issue of withholding artificial hydration and nutrition is such a heavily debated topic. To make a more informed decision

4. Compare And Contrast Gram-Positive And Gram-Negative Cell Walls With Regard To (A) Sensitivity To Antimicrobial Agents, (B) Resistance To Phagocytosis, (C) Chemical Composition, And (D)...

920 words - 4 pages Research paper. NUTRITION FOR THE ELDERLY: Nutrition is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, performance, health and well-being across the entire life-span. A good nutrition adequate well balanced diet combined with

Scavenger Hunt

549 words - 3 pages Name: ____________________________________ Food and Nutrition Scavenger Hunt Lab Assignment 1. Find 2 cereals and 2 breads that are excellent sources of fiber. Give the serving size and grams of fiber per serving for each. ____________________________________ _______grams ____________________________________ _______grams ____________________________________ _______grams

Protein

293 words - 2 pages I use to think of meats or a powdered substance in a big plastic container when I saw the word protein. I now know proteins come in many different forms, and not only from the above mentioned sources. According to “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention” (2012), “The protein in the foods we eat is digested into amino acids that are later used to replace these proteins in our bodies” (Nutrition for Everyone). Proteins in our diet can be

Nestle

933 words - 4 pages Ans-1 Nestlé describes itself as a food, nutrition, health, and wellness company. Recently they created Nestlé Nutrition, a global business organization designed to strengthen the focus on their core nutrition business. They believe strengthening their leadership in this market is the key element of their corporate strategy. This market is characterized as one in which the consumer’s primary motivation for a purchase is the claims made by the

Appendix A

377 words - 2 pages Axia College Material Appendix A Final Project Overview and Timeline Final Project Overview Describe briefly a current health problem or nutritional need that you are experiencing, or a health or nutrition problem you can foresee experiencing because of your family history. Using insights from the My Pyramid Plan Web exercise, the Recommended Dietary Allowances, Recommended Dietary Intakes for your age group and gender, and information

Nutritional Needs Ad

980 words - 4 pages Nutritional Needs Ad May 4, 2015 Nutritional Needs Ad During pregnancy eating a healthy and well-balanced diet is essential to the growth of your fetus. Gaining too little weight can produce an under-nourished infant. While, over-nutrition also poses a risk to both mother and child. Nutritional Needs for a Developing Embryo The process of prenatal development occurs in three stages starting with the germinal stage that is the first two

Related Essays

Nutrition Essay

1206 words - 5 pages Comparing Nutrition Labels Nutrition labels are intended to help people make healthier choices when it comes to the food they eat. Consumers recognize nutrition labels as tools to help improve their health and can find an abundance of valuable information pertaining to specific items. The presence of nutritional information may influence the consumer to switch from unhealthy food products towards healthy food products, but only if they

Nutrition Essay

886 words - 4 pages Part #1 I feel my personal goals, attitude and readiness are all equally balanced. I’m not currently trying to loose weight but to simply tone my body. In the last two years I’ve dropped an estimated 25-30 pounds and am quite happy at this point. Like I said toning my body is a different struggle now, being that loosing weight does not automatically add muscle. I consider myself a moderate exercise enthusiast, and I have what I call “winter

Nutrition Essay

1186 words - 5 pages Name:________________________________________ Biol 2420 Fa15 Exam 3 Study Guide This guide is not guaranteed to include everything that will be on the exam. Please review your class notes, class slides, homework assignments, and supplement with the class text as needed. I also recommend that you read the article “The Challenge of Antibiotic Resistance” by S. Levy if you need further clarification on antibiotic resistance. 1

Nutrition Essay 900 Words

900 words - 4 pages Name Course Title Date Topic: watermelon Description of watermelon Watermelоn іs a vіne-lіke flоwerіng plant оrіgіnally frоm sоuthern Afrіca. It іs a large, sprawlіng annual plant wіth cоarse, haіry pіnnately-lоbed leaves and whіte tо yellоw flоwers. It іs grоwn fоr іts edіble fruіt, alsо knоwn as a watermelоn. The fruіt has a smооth hard rіnd, usually green wіth dark green strіpes оr yellоw spоts, and a juіcy, sweet іnterіоr flesh