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Performance Management Essay

3239 words - 13 pages

1.0 Performance Management
Today we believe that an organization’s competitive success is achieved through people. Then, it follows that the skills and performance of people are critical. Performance management is a continuous process of identifying, measuring and developing performance of individuals and teams and aligning performance with the strategic goals of the organization. The system through which organizations set work goals, determine performance standard, assign and evaluate work, provide performance feedback, determine training and development needs and distribute rewards (Briscoe and Claus, 2008). “Performance management is a systematic approach to tracking individual ...view middle of the document...

Beck (2000: 31) defines motivation as a theoretical concept that explains why people “choose to engage in particular behaviors at particular times”, and it would be these influencing factors that result in the employee experiencing a want and need, or the lack thereof, to perform, or to achieve something, hence the employee’s motivation to excel and achieve more. Kumar (2003) cites Stoke (1999) belief that motivation is a human psychological characteristic that contributes to a person's degree of commitment. The employee motivation may give impact on their attitudes or behaviors then it also may affect the job performance. Elliot and Dweck (2005: 5) continue to reason that issues regarding achievement motivation apply to research on flow, creativity, cognitive strategies, self-regulated learning, coping and disengagement, and social comparison. There are some of motivational approaches or theories that influence employee performance.
3.1 Maslow’s Motivation Theory
The first motivational theories are Maslow’s Motivation Theory. Abraham Maslow‟s widely quoted Hierarchy of Needs model illustrates the Motivation Theory (Cheminais et al 1998:155; Cronje et al 2001:155; Grobler et al 2006:217; Marnewick 2011:1295; Maslow 1943:370-96; Moore 1985:109-11). Maslow proposed five levels of needs which are physiological needs, safety needs, love needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Physiological needs to be the most basic of needs of which fulfillment is necessary for survival. Examples of physiological needs include air, water and food. Safety needs involve self-preservation, for example freedom from threat, danger and deprivation. Social needs involve an individual’s ability and desire to exist in harmony with others, for example the desire for association, belonging and companionship. Self-confidence, recognition, appreciation and respect for one’s peers are examples of self-esteem needs which, when met, results in a sense of adequacy. Self-actualization which gives results in the realization of one’s full potential. In Maslow’s theory to be the relationship between the different needs. Physiological and safety needs form the group of basic needs. These basic needs must be met before an individual can progress to the next level of higher-order needs, namely social, self-esteem and self-actualization needs.
But there are criticisms from many authors about this theory. Hofstede (1984:389-398), Cianci and Gambrel (2003:143-161) felt that the theory was more applicable to societies where “individualism” was more accepted than a strong community responsibility. According to Kreitner there are exists practical evidence that suggests that a two-level rather than five-level hierarchy should be used. However, Maslow’s model has had a considerable impact on the study of motivation in general and in particular as regards employee performance. Once the employee reaches the level of enhanced self-esteem needs, a worthwhile job and meaningful...

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