María D. Rodríguez
University of Phoenix
December 14th, 2009
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For example in the experimental study of "Little Albert", Watson conditioned the little boy to fear rats. At first Albert was not afraid of the rat and the other animals, but Watson made a loud noise by hitting a steal bar with a hammer every time Albert touched the rats. Watson was able to show that emotional responses could be conditioned, or learned.
B. F. Skinner is a true radical behaviorist who referred to his philosophy of science as radical behaviorism. His contributions to psychology have had a profound effect on how we learn. According to him, psychology should be the study of behavior which would be anything a human being or an organism is a part of.
The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in obvious behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events that occur in the environment.
A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem (O’Donohue, Ferguson 2001). This is very different from what most psychologists perceive psychology to be. Some think it should be the study of consciousness for example Wundt. Others think the focus of psychology should be the unconscious for example Freud. According to his study and research B.F.
Skinner said that there was a clear cut difference between overt behavior and covert behavior. Overt behavior is the type of behavior that can be observed by two or more people. This means it is the type of behavior that can be found in several people and it should be identical. Covert behavior is the unique type of behavior that he referred to as “occurring within the skin”. This type of behavior should not be identical in two people. Skinner thought it was vital to have a study of both. Skinner’s theory was based on the philosophy of the trial analysis of behavior or behavioral psychoanalysis (O’Donohue, Ferguson 2001).
B. F. Skinner’s work, with the help of his studies on John B. Watson’s theory was solely functional analysis. In relation to the modern day psychology, he was not interested in merely reducing behavior to some series of effects and causes; he showed lawful interrelations between observables (Baars, 1986). B. F. Skinner believed that all behavior was determined. This is because people believed in free will but understood very little about the causes. According to him science gave proof to system regularities (O’Donohue, Ferguson 2001). Following the tracks of John B. Watson, he advocated for operant conditioning as the singularly scientific approach to life.
He had a novel Walden two where he vouched for the application of his theory to the construction of completely new communities (Baars 2001). B. F. Skinner was supported by other psychologist that there is not an extraordinary rational world with unique properties. This was against the study by Edward C. Tolman.
Edward C. Tolman was the only most important figure...