This essay aims to discuss issues associating with practice management. The essay will critically evaluate four models of management, leadership and marketing incorporating the styles, behaviours and concepts of each. The Framework of ethics, accountability, obtaining consent and breach of confidentiality will be analysed and how this may affect a professional practitioner.
Management and Leadership
The terms of management and leadership are perceived as synonyms and are often used interchangeably (Mullins, 2007). Authors such as Kotter (1990) and Zaleznik (1989) believe that there is no relationship between leadership and management, while others may argue that ...view middle of the document...
Other authors such as Hollingsworth (1989 as cited in Mullins, 2007) with both commercial and military experience and Kotter (1990) professor of leadership management make a very clear distinction.
Kotter (1990) argues that management attempts to establish order and security, whereas leadership aims to promote change and flexibility within an organisation. Kotter defines leaders as those, which set a direction, motivate people and align them to their vision, whereas managers will plan, organise, control and resolve problems.
However, Hollingsworth’s (1989 as cited in Mullins, 2007) interpretation involves; developments, innovation, are people focused, they inspire trust, have an eye on the horizon and for doing the right thing. By contrast, management is associated with maintenance, administration, control, system and structure, paying attention to the bottom line and doing things right.
Zaleznik (1989, cited in Mullins, 2010) argues that leaders and managers differ in terms of their personality, he portrays managers as cold mechanisms who adopt passive attitudes toward goals, he goes on to say that, they have low emotional involvement and are usually detached and manipulative. However, he perceives leaders as imaginative and creative and has a clearer understanding of team member’s strengths, weakness, interests and motivations.
Although the critical roles of leadership are about continuing beneficial development as stated by Hollingsworth (1989) and management about seeking stability, both constructs clearly overlap. It is essential that any organisation aiming to succeed must maintain an active balance of skilful leadership and responsible management (Mullins 2010).
Management and Leadership Models
Douglas McGregor (1960) based his work on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs; he did this by grouping the hierarchy into higher-order needs (Theory Y) and lower-order needs (Theory X) (Mullins, 2007). McGregor suggested that the manager could use either of these needs to motivate employees, although Theory Y rather than Theory X would produce better results (Wren, 1995).
McGregor’s model suggests that the Theory X manager assumes that subordinates need to be controlled and coerced in order to obtain high productivity and prevent quality problems. McGregor’s Theory Y manager believes that working is a natural process, and mostly, employees when left in this type of environment may improve and excel based on personal drive (Mullins, 2007).
McGregor clearly defined contrasting opinions that managers believe about employees and how those opinions tend to influence a manager’s behaviour (Wren, 1995).
Blake and Mouton (1964) built their management behavioural grid around McGregor’s X and Y theory (Mullins, 2007). According to Wren (1995), their contribution was to suggest that a significant concern for both people and production were needed and that a competent manager could be trained to develop a balanced concern for...