The study of Macromolecules in the body is significantly examined through Anatomy and physiology understanding the body at its most primary, fundamental level. Roles carried out by macromolecules are crucial to life contributing to functions throughout the entire body and by understanding these structures and methods, effective medicines to treat conditions can be developed successfully whilst the rest of the body can be grasped. In particular, I have decided to research Protein macromolecules. Proteins are unique in the way of their structures and found contributing to virtually all cells of the body. The following essay explains the distinctive structures of Protein, ...view middle of the document...
The primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. Each of these processes, continue to develop the protein until complete depending on its complexity of use. Generally, completion is finalised during tertiary. The quaternary phase is not always utilised as this consists of multiple protein structures combined into multi-sub unit complexes. There are two major categories of proteins which utilise quaternary structures, the Fibrous and Globular, explained by (Ophardt, 2003.) Some forms of Fibrous protein include Keratin, Tubulin and Nebulin. Fibrous proteins provide structural support for cells and tissues whilst globular proteins consist of elements such as haemoglobin, as they are water soluble and therefore found in blood plasma.
Examples of Protein Macromolecules:
Keratin and Myosin are examples of Proteins substances and each serve different purposes. Keratin is a structural Protein aiding in protecting and strengthening biological structures. Keratin is found in the outer layer of skin as well as hair, nails and further masticatory organs such as the tongue. Myosin is found in muscle fibres and works alongside Actin as a contractile protein producing force and relaxation of muscle. Furthermore interactions of actin and myosin are responsible for a variety of movements of non-muscle cells, including cell division (Cooper, 2000)
Protein macromolecules are commonly used during cellular respiration and make up the majority of the Electron transport chain. The transport chain acts as a transportation unit transferring electrons released from NADH and FADH2 through a series of enzymes. If glucose and fat sources are depleted and intake of protein is high, it’s furthermore used as an energy source through catabolism. During this process, deamination occurs, removing the amino group NH2 from the Protein molecule then utilised in the Citric acid cycle. The build-up of Amino Acids during deamination produces harmful waste products such as ammonia indicated by (Bryant, 2003) these waste products are eventually converted into urea and excreted by the kidneys. If...