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Public Policy Essay

648 words - 3 pages

Disposición general de la ley jones-
Las disposiciones generales del maritime merchant act de 192o sobre el trafico de cabotaje reglamentan el comercio interestatal de mercancías y pasajeros entre estados unidos y sus territorios, excluyendo aquellos territorios del pacífico e islas vírgenes. En especifico se requiere que las mercancías transportadas entre los estados y desde lugares dentro del territorio nacional de los estados unidos sean a través de la marina mercante de estados unidos ;registradas o con franquicias otorgadas por autoridad de E.U.; con tripulación de ciudadanos americanos y por medio de navíos fabricados en esta nación.
3-Exepcione Guam, Samoa-
Samoa, Guam y las islas marianas están exentas de la ley de jones. Ellos argumentan que la ley jones implica una carga contributiva al tener que pagar por los servicios de transportación más caros.
4-exepciones Islas vírgenes-
Para las Islas vírgenes todo el volumen comercial desde y hasta las ...view middle of the document...

(b) Los barcos y otros activos de la marina mercante pueden proveer el respaldo valioso en la fase militar a la marina de guerra en caso que fuera necesario.
(c) La marina mercante extranjera podría no considerar sacrificar sus rutas comerciales en aras
En el aspecto económico se presentan los siguientes argumentos:
(a) la eliminación de estas leyes no contribuye a reducir el costo pues, las marinas mercantes extranjeras están agrupadas en acuerdos oligopolísticos de precios y servicios conocidos como “Conferences”, por lo que cobrarían los mismos por el servicio que la marina mercante de Estados Unidos;
(b) Los extranjeros no pagan contribuciones al erario norteamericano, mientras que los locales si lo hacen.
(c) Las tarifas entre P.R. y E.U. han bajado en términos reales en un 40%, por lo que la competencia entre las empresas, impulsa mejorías en la escala y eficiencia; y,
(d) el precio o costo de transporte no es el único elemento. La marina extranjera no tiene la capacidad para el servicio de transportación intermodal y requeriría de gran inversión local para ello. Tampoco posee buena calidad en sus servicios, tiempo de llegada es incierto y la tripulación no es tan eficiente, entre otros.
8- Argumentos en contra-
El argumento principal se resume en que la Ley Jones implica un impuesto (carga contributiva) al tener que pagar por los servicios de transportación más caros que de otra manera al usar barcos de bandera extranjera. Extraña grandemente esta posición “proteccionista” de la Ley en virtud de la orientación filosófica del sistema económico de E.U. hacia los postulados de la libre empresa. Todos los estados y Puerto Rico, excluyendo a los territorios de Islas Vírgenes, Guam, Samoa Americana y las Islas Marianas, están bajo los estatutos de la Ley Jones .

En Puerto Rico, por muchos años se ha intentado estimar el costo de la Ley Jones. Al momento no existe un consenso claro sobre el estimado de costo de la misma. Se señala que la cifra puede oscilar entre $300 a $500 millones por año. Un estudio de 1993 realizado por la firma Management and Economic Consultant, Inc, llegó a la conclusión que de eliminarse la Ley Jones, el ahorro anual sería de unos $100 millones de un total de $961 millones de costos de fletes. Esta cifra representa un 10.4% del total de costos de fletes.

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