Pyc4805 Essay

1174 words - 5 pages





DUE DATE : 15 APRIL 2016


- Minds ability to control irrelevant stimuli to the task at


Knowledge of Cognitive Capabilities

Attentional Strategies


From infancy the ability to inhibit thoughts enhances.
"By clearing unnecessary stimuli, inhibition increases
available space in working memory." (Berk, 2013, p.


Has 4 phases:


production deficiency
control deficiency
utilization deficiency
effective strategy use


Children with attention, behaviour and learning
problems suffer with Attention-Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)




“Gains in ...view middle of the document...

3 ways to retrieve information


Information we interpret and
transform from our encounters, by
replacing or reconstructing new
information where necessary.
Can be inaccurate

Recognition & Recall

Fuzzy-Trace Theory
“When information is encoded, it is
reconstructed automatically into a gist-- a
vague, fuzzy version that is especially
useful for reasoning. With age, children
rely less on verbatim memory and more
on reconstructed gist’s, contributing to
improved recall of details with age."(Berk,
2013, p. 316).







Stress importance of planful
Advocate effective learning
Emphasize monitoring of
Providing evaluation of
strategy effectiveness.


"Task demands and cultural
circumstances influence the
development of memory
strategies.”(Berk, 2013, p.316)



Cognitive Self-Regulation
"Process of continually monitoring and
controlling progress toward a goal-planning, checking outcomes, and
redirecting unsuccessful efforts."(Berk,
2013, p. 304).
Develops gradually with age
Teachers and parents are important
factors in actively encouraging children's


Involves the process of keeping
information in the long or short term
memory and retrieving it when

Elaboration - “involves creating a
relationship, or shared meaning
between two or more pieces of
information that do not belong in the
same category."(Berk, 2013, p. 293)


Older children combine different
factors that impacts their mental
activity for a better understanding.


Strategies for Storing
3 strategies

Rehearsal, Organization & Elaboration



4 Strategies

School children are more conscious
of mental strategies


Vital in memory development.
Focus, process and directs train of thought to the
environment and information given in specific
Enhances and contributes to planning, becomes
more sustained, selective and adaptable with
young to middle children.



Language development
contributes to the view of the

"Involves thinking out of a sequence of acts
ahead of time and allocating attention
accordingly to reach a goal."(Berk, 2013, p.
Seen in infants and young children but
improves in middle childhood.
Parents teachers, cultural tools and
opportunities to practice, helps children to
contribute to gains in planning.



Older children are aware that their
mind is active, which allows
selecting, constructing and
transforming information.

Sustained, Selective &
Adaptable Attention

Knowledge of Strategies

Young children have difficulties and
not aware of how knowledge is

Episodic Memory
is semantic memory contributes to the
memory of autobiographical events
1.4 Episodic
"Recollections of personally experienced
events that occurred at a specific time and
place."(Berk, 2013, p. 297).
2 types


- Helps us predict what
might occur if faced
with a familiar


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