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Rem Sleep And Order Essay

1264 words - 6 pages

Human beings spend significant amount of their time into sleeping. During their sleep, human beings often experience the ‘magical’ state, the dream. In the dream, people maybe part of a Wonderful Wizard of Oz, horror stories or even reality shows. This chimerical state has caused dream researchers to question the cause of dream or even the contents of dream. Despite the fact that the state of dreaming has gathered researchers’ attention for long time, researchers have only begun to conduct thorough investigation on dreaming. However, as Robert E. Haskell (1986) states, “…The study of dreams and dreaming is an area of research that seems either to stimulate almost boundless, yet ...view middle of the document...

From this experiment, Winegar and Levin concluded that girls showed more maturity in relationships than boys and the difference was greater in the later years (Domhoff, P.50). The problem with this experiment is the drop out rate. Also, the length of dream description by participants imposes a problem of small sample size, but problem on sample sizes will be discussed later. According Cote et al. (1996) and Lortie-Lussier, Schwab & de Koninck (1985) describes that it takes atleast several weeks to obtain a minimum of two dreams from a participant (Domhoff, P.50). Hence, large drop out rate becomes likely because of the length that it takes for a participant to clearly identify their dream. This may cause frustration to the participants; as a result, their participation may become oblivious to them. Although a clear solution is hard to obtain for this methodology, a study by Tonay (1990) provides a possible solution. Tonay’s study conducted among students in University of California, Berkely, indicates that most of students who had chosen not to volunteer for a dream diary for 2 week, 43% of them said that they would continue the dream diary if it were part of a course assignment (Domhoff, P.51). Instead of having dream diary as a volunteering, it should be assigned as a task that may affect the participants, such as the grade, or even provide substantial amount of reward to the participants. In order to develop conclusions for studies that suffer from drop out rate, researchers should develop a conclusion after removing participants who dropped out of the experiment. However, most of the times, the result of the experiment may then suffer from small sample size.
The issue of drop out rate consequently leads to another problem that dream reports suffer from, the small sample size. Beck (1967)’s study in the effect of divorce, such as depression, on dreaming indicates the problem of small sample sizes. Initially, the experiment started with 300 participants, half women and half men, who were either divorced or formerly divorced. Of the 300 participants, only 87 gave the report. Furthermore, to make the matters worse, the number of participants who were depressed dropped significantly. Originally, 47% of the men and 51% of the women were classed as depressed; however, during the follow up, only 7.5% of the men and 6.3% of the women remained depressed. Conclusion has yet been developed for this experiment for it is still in progress (Bootzin, P.184). As seen from this experiment, the result of this experiment had suffered heavily from the small sample size. Again, this has contributed by the length of the experiment. Not only did the length of time discourage people from remaining in the study, but the time was also long enough to convert the mood of people, and the mood was an essential factor of the experiment. Although the solution to preserving the mood of participants of experiment may not be evident, in order...

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