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Segmentation Essay

586 words - 3 pages

Aim: To study methods of segmentation
In computer vision, segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments (sets of pixels, also known as super pixels). The goal of segmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. Image segmentation is typically used to locate objects and boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images. More precisely, image segmentation is the process of assigning a label to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same label share certain visual characteristics. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image, or a set of contours extracted from the image (see edge detection). Each of the pixels in a region are similar with respect to some characteristic or computed property, such as color, intensity, or texture. ...view middle of the document...

g. no pixels change clusters)

Histogram-based methods
Histogram-based methods are very efficient when compared to other image segmentation methods because they typically require only one pass through the pixels. In this technique, a histogram is computed from all of the pixels in the image, and the peaks and valleys in the histogram are used to locate the clusters in the image. Color or intensity can be used as the measure. A refinement of this technique is to recursively apply the histogram-seeking method to clusters in the image in order to divide them into smaller clusters. This is repeated with smaller and smaller clusters until no more clusters are formed. One disadvantage of the histogram-seeking method is that it may be difficult to identify significant peaks and valleys in the image. In this technique of image classification distance metric and integrated region matching are familiar.

Edge detection
Edge detection is a well-developed field on its own within image processing. Region boundaries and edges are closely related, since there is often a sharp adjustment in intensity at the region boundaries. Edge detection techniques have therefore been used as the base of another segmentation technique. The edges identified by edge detection are often disconnected. To segment an object from an image however, one needs closed region boundaries.

Region growing methods
The first region growing method was the seeded region growing method. This method takes a set of seeds as input along with the image. The seeds mark each of the objects to be segmented. The regions are iteratively grown by comparing all unallocated neighboring pixels to the regions. The difference between a pixel's intensity value and the region's mean, δ, is used as a measure of similarity. The pixel with the smallest difference measured this way is allocated to the respective region. This process continues until all pixels are allocated to a region.

Applications:
• • • • • • • Medical Imaging Locate objects in satellite images Face recognition Fingerprint recognition Traffic control systems Brake light detection Machine vision

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