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Social Pedagogy Essay

1140 words - 5 pages

ONTOLÓGIA – náuka o bytí
- pochádza z gréckeho slova – ontos – bytie, súcno, to, čo je, čo existuje
- už v období pred Sokratom, hľadala prírodná filozofia základný princíp celku sveta, základnú pralátku – ARCHÉ (voda, vzduch, apeiron, oheň..)
za zakladateľa sa považuje Aristoteles, otcom pojmu bytia je však Parmenides
potom ustupuje do pozadia, Ch.Wolf ju uzákonil ako samostatnú filozofickú disciplínu (1730) v diele Ontológia
- meontológia - uvažovanie o nebytí
nech myslíme na akýkoľvek predmet, vec, nech je akokoľvek vzdialený aj naším zmyslom, vždy bude mať jednu vlastnosť a to, že bude existovať
Základné ontologické pojmy :
1. SÚCNO :
SUBSTANCIA -
- podstata, to, čo je ...view middle of the document...

..
* Ekvifinalita – viaceré X spôsobujú Y
* Zmyslová determinácia – keď príčina spôsobí následok a až my určíme zmysel, keď sa to stane
* Chaos – neusporiadaný stav, z ktorého sa samostatným vývojom alebo pôsobením vonkajšej sily stáva usporiadaný stav
* Fatalizmus – krajná forma determinácie, všetko je predurčené osudom a nemožno tomu predísť
ZÁKON KAUZALITY :
zákonitý vzťah medzi dvoma javmi, udalosťami, vlastnosťami kde jeden jav (príčina, causa), spôsobuje druhý jav (účinok, efectus)
1. vzťah genetický – jeden vyvolá druhý, nie naopak, 2. časovo následný – následok nemôže byť skôr ako príčina, 3. jednosmerný, 4. prísne nevyhnutný
* 3. ČAS {gr.chronos, lat. tempus}
* jedna z najvýznamnejších kategórií, plynie z minulosti, cez prítomnosť do budúcnosti, doba, ktorá plynie medzi dvoma momentmi, nepretržitá, nezvratná zmena,
* minulý, prítomný, budúci
* fyzický čas (reálne trvanie časových vecí)
* imaginárny čas (nemá nijakú realitu, je myšlienkou veci, pomocou tohto pojmu môžeme vynášať súdy o časových pomeroch či udalostiach)
* objektívny – používaný vedcami, prírodnými filozofmi
* absolútny - nezávislý, vždy plynúci, panta rei
* subjektívny – bez subjektu niet času
* vlastnosti času : {dimenziálnosť (rozmer), jednosmernosť, nezvratnosť}
4. PRIESTOR
* predpokladom každého vnímania
* spolu s časom tvorí základ každého vonkajšieho a vnútorného nazerania
* priestor vychádza z pojmov : 1. PRÁZDNO – priestor nevyplnený žiadnym telesom
2. MIESTO - priestor vyplnený telesom
* - absolútny, nekonečný – bez konca, bez hraníc, imaginárny
* - konečný - nejakým spôsobom vymedzený
* - teória relativity – svet je síce konečný, ale napriek tomu je neohraničený
5. HMOTA
- gr. hylé, lat. matéria ( materiál, z ktorého sa niečo tvorí)
* protiklady hmoty : forma, duch, myslenie
* pojmy blízke hmote : svet, príroda
MATERIALISTI – bytie je hmota
IDEALISTI – skutočné bytie je duch
DUALISTI – existujú dve substancie a to duch a hmota
* o hmote môžeme hovoriť všade, kde je niečo určované, získava tvar, musí to byť štruktúrovaný súhrn telies
KRITÉRIA HMOTY :
* hmota je látka
* nepriestupnosť, tvrdosť
* vnútorná nemennosť
* priestorová vymedziteľnosť
6. POHYB
* každá zmena, zmena miesta telesa
* možno ho deliť na prirodzený (pohyb k prirodzenému miestu) a násilný (je udávaný pohybom zvonka, kde pôsobiaca príčina leží mimo vec)
* základné skupiny formy pohybu :
1. anorganická (najnižšia)
2. organická
3. socio-kultúrna (teória T.Chardina – nižšie formy sú zahrnuté vo vyšších formách)
GNOZEOLÓGIA – je filozofická disciplína
zaoberajúca sa podstatou, zdrojom, výsledkami
poznania a podmienkami jeho uchovávania
a prenášania.
* poznanie je ľudská aktivita, ktorá je zameraná na získanie informácií
* poznanie musí byť objektívne, platné a prístupné aj mimo zážitku, ktorý subjekt získal
* je učenie o možnosti poznať...

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