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Sports Management Essay

967 words - 4 pages

Author | Honeybourne, John |
Title | BTEC national sport : award, certificate, diploma / John Honeybourne |
Publisher | Cheltenham : Nelson Thornes, c2003 |

According to the basic tenets derived from this research, optimum performance should be seen at levels of moderate arousal. As arousal approaches extremes (a comatose state on one end and panic attack on the other), performance will decline accordingly. The end result is a curvilinear relationship between arousal and performance that resembles an inverted-U. Landers & Arent, 2001

If the task is complex, requiring fine motor skill, the optimal level of arousal is low. If the task is relatively simple, requiring gross motor ...view middle of the document...

Activities involving (fine, accurate muscle actions or complex tasks requiring
higher level of perception, decision making, concentration and attention) will
be carried out more effectively if optimum arousal is lightly lower.
It is important that a teacher/coach assesses the appropriate levels of arousal for
each task - to ensure that the optimum level is achieved.
The need to adjust arousal levels to suit both the task and situation could involve
the coach in trying to increase/decrease a performer's arousal levels.
There may be differences - between teams within different roles (batting/bowling
in cricket compared to fielding-in terms of different levels of concentration
needed in each role)
Levels of excitement/anxiety caused by high arousal - need to be controlled by
stress management techniques.
Many sports/tasks involve combinations of both 'fine' and 'gross' skills/different
information processing linked to complexity. Within games players will need
different levels of arousal and at different times.
Individual differences:
Beginners - need different levels of arousal to professional sports people.
The level of complexity is relative to the stages of learning and/or experience. At
moderate levels of arousal - a beginner may go to pieces/unable to cope-even lower
levels of arousal may be more appropriate.

The criticisms of the inverted-U hypothesis have been conceptual and methodological. Investigators (Anderson, 1990; Neiss, 1988) have noted tile mistake of using the terms "arousal" and "anxiety" interchangeably. In the psychology literature, the tern1 arousal is often used synonymously with the term "activation" and refers to a nondirective generalized bodily activation. Arousal is, thus, considered an energizing function responsible for harnessing the body's resources for intense and vigorous activity (Sage, 1984). Anxiety, on the other hand, is an emotional state or reaction often characterized by unpleasant feelings of intensity, preoccupation, disturbance, and apprehension (Spielberger, 1975). Some investigators (Anderson, 1990) have proposed a...

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