Organizational behavior is the study of the behavior of individuals in organizations. It studies the science and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. The purpose of the study is to improve relationships in organizational context and therefore improve the process of achieving the organizational goals and objectives.
Definition of organizational behavior
“Actions and attitudes of individuals and groups toward one another and toward the organization as a whole, and its effect on the organization's functioning and performance.”
Evolution of Management theory
Behavioral science approach
This Approach focuses on the ...view middle of the document...
The contingency approach says that there is no best way of management in an organization and that the style should be tailored to the prevailing circumstances.
2. Contingency theory of leadership
This theory was influenced to a large extent by the work of Fred Fielder who suggested that the “degree to which subordinates like or trust the leader, the degree to which the task is structured, and the formal authority possessed by the leader are key determinants of the leadership situation”
3. Contingency rule theory
The rule theory that’s that the activities of the social interactions are determined by the actual context or situation in which they take place and self-evaluative behavior, e.g. how people evaluate their persuasive actions.
The contingency rules theory assumes that: (1) compliance-gaining and compliance-resisting activities are governed antecedently by Jive varieties of self-evaluative and adaptive contingency rules; (2) the actual contexts where social influence agents interact determine the configuration of rules governing their persuasive actions; and (3) an actual context is a function of volitional behavior within fixed potential contextual boundaries
The system approach states that the organization is a set of interrelated sub parts that unite to a whole. The whole system yet interacts within other systems and environments.
1. Element in business system
the elements in a system are called sub-systems. Each element influences another element.
2. Process and response in business system
A process transforms inputs into outputs. In an organization this could be for example raw materials into products by production. Each sub system in an organization consists of interrelated processes.
3. 7 S model
This model had been developed by the consulting firm McKinsey and consists of 7 elements of organizations: Strategy, Structure, Systems, Shared values, Skills, Staff and style....