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Système Judiciaire Essay

1555 words - 7 pages

Organisation du système judiciaire :

Ordre judiciaire
Ordre répressif
Ordre judiciaire
Ordre répressif

Ordre répressif
Ordre répressif
Organisation de l’ordre administratif :

Tribunal administratif (1ère juridiction)
Cour administrative d’appel (2ème juridiction)
Conseil d’Etat
Tribunal administratif (1ère juridiction)
Cour administrative d’appel (2ème juridiction)
Conseil d’Etat

Ordre administratif :

Si je veux contester la décision d’un inspecteur du travail (qui est un fonctionnaire), je dois traiter avec l’ordre administratif. De même, si un chirurgien dans un hôpital fait du mauvais travail, je dois là encore traiter avec l’ordre administratif. ...view middle of the document...

Le juge d’instruction ne peut pas mettre un prévenu en détention provisoire : c’est le Juge des Libertés et de la Détention qui peut le faire.

Le procureur de la République est le représentant de l’ordre public : il propose toujours une sanction au nom de l’ordre public en présentant ses réquisitions (prison ferme, avec sursis, amende, TIG.
Ne pas confondre amende et dommages & intérêts :
* l’amende va dans les poches de l’Etat
* les dommages et intérêts vont dans les poches de la victime, si elle s’est constituée partie civile

* Le parquet est le maître de l’opportunité des poursuites : il peut classer sans suite. Dans ce cas, la victime peut saisir le juge d’instruction, qui relève du siège. Le juge d’instruction peut alors renvoyer le prévenu devant le Tribunal Correctionnel.

Ordre judiciaire :

Les juridictions classiques (relèvent du droit civil) :

* Le Juge de proximité : il est saisi pour des enjeux inférieurs à 4000 euros.
* Le Tribunal d’Instance (TI) : il est saisi pour des enjeux compris entre 4000 et 10000 euros. Notons que La loi a donné une compétence spéciale au Tribunal d’Instance. Tous les litiges relatifs au crédit à la consommation (même supérieur à 10000 euros) relèvent du TI.
* Le Tribunal de Grande Instance (TGI) : il est saisi pour des enjeux supérieurs à 10000 euros.

On retrouve dans cette juridiction des juges particuliers :
* Le juge des tutelles (juge unique): il est rattaché au tribunal d’instance (TI). Explosion du nombre de dossier avec le rallongement de la durée de vie. Juge notamment le cas des personnes d’âgées qui dépensent beaucoup d’argent. La question est de savoir si elles le font avec « toute leur tête » ou non.
* Le juge des affaires familiales (le JAF) (juge unique): il est rattaché au tribunal de grande instance (TGI). C’est un juge qui s’occupe des divorces, de la garde les enfants, etc. (dans 72% des divorces, la garde va chez la mère).

Les juridictions spécialisées :

Le Tribunal de commerce : les juges qui y siègent sont élus lors d’élections organisées par la Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie. Seuls des commerçants sont éligibles. Ce tribunal règle les litiges entre commerçants, mais aussi entre commerçants et particuliers. On y applique le droit commercial. Ce tribunal peut mettre une société en faillite.

Cas d’une société en ECP (état de cessation de paiement) : souvent, lorsque c’est le cas, le créancier saisit le Tribunal de Commerce. Une fois saisi, le tribunal de commerce a deux options :
* Il prononce la liquidation judiciaire de la société.
* Il lance une procédure de redressement judiciaire. Un administrateur judiciaire est alors nommé pour tenter de redresser l’entreprise. Il prend la place du chef de l’entreprise. Dans 80% des cas, l’entreprise bascule quand même en liquidation judiciaire.

En 2005 la procédure de sauvegarde est créée : un chef d’entreprise, si la situation de son entreprise est difficile, peut...

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