The Bubonic Plague Analysis

1785 words - 8 pages

The Bubonic Plague Analysis

Contents
I. Abstract

II. Introduction

III. Background Information

IV. Discussion

V. Diagnosis Test

VI. Prevention

VII. Conclusion

VIII. Bibliography

Abstract

According to archeologists, Bubonic plague may have originated from Egypt and not in Asia as originally thought. The disease is termed ‘Black Death’ and is said to have also begun in North Africa. Archeologists and fossil insect experts report that the disease may have distributed as a result of the flooding of River Nile that forced the rats to infest the human populated areas during the 3500 B.C. The causative agents of Bubonic Plague are known as ...view middle of the document...

Emerging theories also suggest that the Nile rat arrived in Egypt through sea trade from India, spreading across the Mediterranean Sea through to Southern Europe. The most famous outbreak of the plague swept across Europe in the 1300s where the disease killed more than 25 million people.

Background Information

Many scholars have a view that the disease was a bacterial strain of Yersinia pestis, with a number of growing minor scholars suggesting that the disease may have been misdiagnosed and that it might be anthrax or some sought of mutation of cattle murrain (Christakos, 2007). The complex biological details of bubonic plague were unraveled around 1900 as a bacterial disease of rodents that depend on the rat flea for its spread and reservoir of resident rodent species for its disease maintenance. The infection spreads to human only occasionally, especially when one is bitten by rat or feeds on the rat.

The infection was fatal in the ancient days, and serious epidemic was established due to lack of antibiotics and modern medicine. Plague results from infestation by Yersinia pestis, a pest Gram-negative bacillus, which belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Y. pestis can be categorized into three biovars, which include Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis. The Antiqua strains are more variable than the other two forms of biovars. Other schemes of classification have also been proposed, including the host-related varieties such as ratti, marmotae and citelli also known as Eurasian ground squirrels.

The geographical distribution of Y.pestis is in parts of Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Madagascar, as well as North and South America. Its distribution is described as patchy, and varies for each biovar. However, the Orientalis biovar, which caused the last pandemic, is distributed all over the world. The most recent outbreak of the disease happened in Kyrgyz, Central Asia, where a teen-boy was reported to have died from Bubonic plague after eating a marmot (CBSNEWS, 2013). The news also stated that further four people were hospitalized from the disease. Transmission The plague is normally transmitted by the bites of the infected fleas, which consist of more than 30 species but vary in their vector efficiency. For instance, Xenopsylla cheopis, an oriental rat flea, is an effective biological vector in which the Y. pestis blocks the gastrointestinal track that makes the flea bite its host repeatedly and in the process regurgitate the pathogen. Bubonic plague is is a common form in human, and it begins with the sudden onset of high fever, chills, headache, myalgia and malaise. In many cases, dizziness and vomiting may become evident. Infected persons with bubonic plague typically develop swollen and very painful draining lymph nodes known as bubo. The bubo is normally one of the femoral or inguinal lymph nodes. Infection through ingestion is another way of transmission, and people who get infected in this way normally develop severe...

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