Name of organization: The Council of Europe
Year founded:5 May 1949 by the Treaty of London.
Original Members: Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
Original objectives: In 1945, at the end of the second World War, Europe was marked by unprecedented devastation and human suffering. It faced new political challenges, in particular reconciliation among the peoples of Europe. This situation favored the long held idea of European integration through the creation of common institutions. In his famous speech at the University of Zurich on 19 September 1946, Sir Winston Churchill ...view middle of the document...
Has the membership changed? Who, when, and why?: The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Greece and Turkey joined three months later, and Iceland and Germany the next year It now has 47 member states, with Montenegro being the latest to join. Article 4 of the Council of Europe Statute specifies that membership is open to any "European" State. This has been interpreted liberally from the beginning (when Turkey was admitted) to include any Eurasian state with a toe-hold in Europe. The big breakthrough for expansion came as a result of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of dictatorial Communist rule in Eastern Europe, most Eastern European nations joined the council, Following its declaration of independence on 3 June 2006, Montenegro submitted a request to accede to the Council of Europe. The Committee of Ministers transmitted the request to the Parliamentary Assembly for opinion, in accordance with the usual procedure. Eleven days later, on 14 June 2006, the Committee of Ministers declared that the Republic of Serbia would continue the membership of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. On 11 May 2007, Montenegro joined the Council of Europe as 47th member state. Only Belarus and Vatican City are not members.
Have the objectives changed? How, when, and why? Article 1(a) of the Statute states that "The aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members for the purpose of safeguarding and realizing the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and facilitating their economic and social progress." Therefore according to current objectives such as eliminating drug trafficking ,being a proponent of human rights for e.g. European Convention on Human Rights, which was adopted in 1950 following a report by the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly. The Convention created the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. The Court supervises compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights and thus functions as the highest European court for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It is to this court that Europeans can bring cases if they believe that a member country has violated their fundamental rights. Their original objective and aim of the Council of Europe is being constantly being manifested such as the set up of programs that promote rights such as
* The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture ,the Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. The Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse .
* The Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse
* Social rights under the European Social Charter ,linguistic rights under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ,minority rights...