UTTERWORTH E I N E M A N N
Tourism Management, Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 593-61)4, 1995 Copyright © 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 11261-5177/95 $10.0(1 + 0.00
Alternative tourism in Montserrat
David B Weaver
Luther College, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada $4S 0.42
Small island states or dependencies have increasingly turned to international mass tourism as a strategy for overcoming their underdeveloped status. However, mounting criticism of this sector has increased the interest in alternative tourism. The Caribbean island of Montserrat is well positioned to implement an ecotourism strategy based on ...view middle of the document...
The first section considers the nature of u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t on SISODs in general and the d e v e l o p m e n t of tourism. Alternative tourism is also introduced, and examined in the specific context of the Caribbean. The 'small island' problems of Montserrat are revealed in section two, which outlines the physical and cultural environment of the island as well as the d e v e l o p m e n t of its tourism industry. The third section considers the rationale for alternative tourism, current initiatives, potential problems, policy recommendations and potential applicability to other SISODs.
3 000 000 p e r m a n e n t residents and a land area of no more than 28 000 km 2.* For several reasons, these entities have b e c o m e the subject of increased scrutiny during the past three decades. 1 4 Geopolitically, SISODs as a group have acquired a significance which belies their modest cumulative resident population and land base. Between 1945 and 1994, the n u m b e r of small island states increased from zero to 31, thus accounting for 16% of all contemporary states. An additional 32 small island dependencies remain as potential candidates for statehood (see Table 1). Economically, the realities of insularity and scale, along with a broadly shared heritage of colonial status, have helped to foster a small island syndrome of u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t which includes the following characteristics: • restricted natural resource endowments; • reliance upon a very limited array of economic activities, and concomitant vulnerability to fluctuations in these sectors; • chronically large trade deficits; • limited local markets and capital; • narrow range of local skills; • isolation from external markets, which are often dominated by the present or past colonial ruler;
T o u r i s m in s m a l l i s l a n d s t a t e s o r dependencies
The context of SISODs
SISODs are defined in this p a p e r as island or archipelagic states and dependencies with less than
* These thresholds were identified and adopted by the author as signifying a discernible gap in the continuum of island population and area statistics.
Alternative tourism in Monserrat: D B Weaver
Table 1 SISOD tourism data 1991 a Area (km 2) Population (19911 Tourism as % GNP
Antigua/Barbuda Bahamas Bahrain Bar bados Cape Verde Comoros Cyprus Dominica Fiji Grenada Jam aica Kiribati Maldives Malta Marshall Is. Mauritius Micronesia Nauru Palau St Kitts/Nevis Saint Lucia St Vincent/Grenadines Sao T o m e e Principe Seychelles Singapore Solomon Is. Tonga Tr inidad & T o bago Tuvalu Vanuatu W ester n Samoa 440 13 940 620 430 4 1130 2 170 9 250 750 18 2711 3411 111 990 717 300 320 181 1 860 705 21 458 269 62(1 344 9611 455 632 27 540 748 5 1311 26 14 760 2 853 199 91 193 50 150 260 311 135 14 240 1 399 12 170 3 941 1 779 541 588 1 100 375 102 960 19 060 260 477 47 2 512 242 410 10 1114 430 352 274 gl (XI0 251 000 536 000 254 0011 381/000...