Total Quality Management (TQM) - is a modern management concept.
- is customer oriented management philosophy and strategy,
centered on quality so as result in customer delight.
TQM addresses the concepts of:
1. Product Quality
2. Process Control
3. Quality Assurance
4. Quality Improvement
Quality - fitness for use
- Its suitability for use by the customer
ISO - International Organization for Standardization
- founded in the year 1946 and has it’s headquarter in Geneva, Switzerland.
1. Functionality- refers to the core ...view middle of the document...
He’s considered to be the “Father of Figure SQC”. He also developed PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, and Act).
2. Deming W. Edwards- an associate of Shewhart. He magnified the PDCA cycle of Shewhart to PDSA (Plan, Do, Stidy, and Act)
3. Joseph M. Juran- identified the fitness of quality: Quality Desigh, Quality Conformance, Availability, and Full Service.
4. Philip B. Crosby- his for absolutes of quality are very important to TQM. Also the Zero Defects Philosophy.
5. Armand V. Feigenbaum- the President of American Society of Quality Control. He coined the term “Total Quality Control”.
6. Kaoru Ishikawa- developed the Fishbobe or Ishikawa Diagram for cause and effect analysis.
Quality Control (QC)- the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfil the requirements for quality.
3 Steps of QC according to Juran:
1. Evaluate actual operating performance
2. Compare actual performance to goals
3. Act on difference
Quality Assurance (QA)- all the planned and systematic activities are implemented within the quality system and demonstrated as needed to provide adequate confidence that an entity will fulfil the requirements for quality.
Quality Planning- refers to the activities that establish the objectives and requirements for quality.
Quality Improvement- this process aims at attaining unprecedented levels of performance, which are significantly better than the past level.
Strategic Planning- is important for any business. It involves making plans for the following, in particular to Business Value, Man power to be hired, Budget, Product diversification, Markets to be served etc.
MBNQA- Malcolm Bridge National Quality Awards.
- The prestigious quality award in USA.
Quality Management- all activities of the overall management function that determine the quality policy, objectives and responsibilities and implement them by means such as quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement within the quality system.
Cost of Quality (COQ)- is the sum of costs incurred by an organization for preventing poor quality.
Essentially three types of Quality Costs:
1. Prevention Costs
2. Appraisal Costs
3. Failure Costs
Classification of Failure Costs:
* Internal Failure Costs- include costs of every failure that takes place before the product is delivered to the customers.
* External Failure Costs- these are on cost of failure of the product after its delivery to the customers.
Hidden Costs- these include the customer incurred costs, lost reputation costs and customer dissatisfaction.
* It is important that top management understands TQM and leads the organization through the TQM journey.
* Elements of TQM:
* Constancy of purpose/Long term commitment
* Focus on processes