This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Urban Economics Essay

415 words - 2 pages

I. Dualism
Poverty/lowincome-difficult to measure, may include social capital, human capital.
1. Spatial mismatch
a. Distance from residence to work
i. Transportation/commute
b. Housing-informal settlers
2. Type of labor
c. Inequality of human capital
d. Labor mismatching
3. Neighborhood Segregation
e. Gated communities vs. maids
f. Production of slums(Planet of slums)
II. Agglomoration
A. Trading cities and Factory cities(specialization/comparative advantage)
B. Later benefits
1. Knowledge spillover
2. Labor pooling, sharing, matching

III. Size of cities
IV. Why is the Housing Market different?
a. Housing-heterogenous, durable, immobile, expensive to move
i. dependent on Income
b. Best housing policy ...view middle of the document...

mixed Land zone
V. Automobiles vs. Mass Transit
f. Types of externalities(internalize the externality)
xii. Automobiles
1. More opportunity to tax
a. Pollution tax(environment)
b. Gasolinetax(congestion)
c. Color/Number-coding(congestion)
xiii. Transits
2. Requires supporting ingrastructure
3. Stages
d. Collection-home to vehicle
e. Line-Haul-On Vehicle
f. Distribution-Vehicle to place of work
4. Feasible if high density of riders and stops
5. Bus is more efficient than light rail
VI. Urban Poverty and the informal sector
g. Planet of slums
xiv. Overurbanization-driving people to Rural areas(Expanded Metropolitan areas/Indonesia and NCR
xv. IMR and World bank-deregulation-surplus of
xvi. Decoupling of urbanization and manufacturing
xvii. Typology of informal housing
6. Egypt-tombs as settlments
7. Peru-Catholic Church as “slumlords”
8. Rental tenements
9. Invisible renters-informal sector-no solidarity or organization
Five Axioms of Urban Economics
1. Prices adjust to Locational Equilibium-when no one has the incentive to move
2. Self-reinforcing effects Generate extreme outcomes-effect with additional effects
3. Externalities cause inefficiency-benefits or costs external to the transaction
4. Production is Subject to Economies of Scale-average cost of production decreases as output increases
5. Competition generates Zero Economic profit
a. Economic Profit=total revenue-total economic cost
b. Competition has a spatial dimension
i. Profit of each firm is affected by the location of other firms.
ii. Spatial competition
c. Firms will continue to enter the market until economic profit drops to zero

Other Papers Like Urban Economics

Economy After Cold War Essay

3190 words - 13 pages ------------------------------------------------- Post–World War II economic expansion From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Golden Age of capitalism" redirects here. Other periods this term may refer to are Gilded Age and Belle Époque. In the United States and several other countries, the boom was manifested insuburban development and urban sprawl, aided by automobile ownership. Many Western governments funded large infrastructure

Cocacola Essay

1820 words - 8 pages evidence for such claims using India as an example. Coca-Cola was banned from India by the Indian Government in 1977 but was allowed to return in October 1993 after agreeing to certain regulations. As India becomes increasingly Westernised, the popularity of Coca-Cola soft drinks and Kinley bottled water has soared, particularly amongst the younger generations and urban elite. Coca-Cola India, comprising of Hindustan Coca-Cola and Bharat Coca-Cola, now

International Trade

3689 words - 15 pages Module Code: EO314 Module Title: ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS Module Convenor: Stephen Smith ID: 03004367 Topic: INTERNATIONAL TRADE This project will attempt to research and gain an understating of whether there is linkage between trade liberalisation and poverty in (SSA) sub Saharan Africa. The project will contain a balance of key analytical approaches and empirical evidence on trade liberalisation and

Chinese Economic Development

1125 words - 5 pages regional disparities becomes increasingly prominent in China because of the exceptional economic growth. The pollution control system is often determined by the economics of the region itself, for instance, the poorest provinces may sacrifice the quality of their environment in order to stimulate economic growth. * The improvement of living standards, urbanization and increased demand for manufactured goods are factors that will necessarily


1140 words - 5 pages revolution of l800? Respond with reference to 2 of the following areas/ economics, foreign policy, judiciary, politics Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the War of l812 the era of good feelings. Evaluate the accuracy of this label, considering the emergence of nationalism and sectionalism in the period l815-1825 dbq To what extent and in what ways did the roles of women change in American society between l790 and l860

Civil War

1089 words - 5 pages sin and started to call for its immediate abolishment. Even though many of the people in the North decided to go with the abolitionists, the Southerners were not too keen about this since their agriculture and their economics depended much upon the slaves. The Southerners could do nothing but to bitterly resent these moralistic attacks. Many of the Southerners were labeled as heartless and ostracized for their slave-keeping attitudes. It cannot be

Strategic Managenment

4559 words - 19 pages . Basker, E. (2005). Selling a cheaper mousetrap: Wal-Mart's effect on retail prices. Journal of Urban Economics . Basker, E. (2005). Selling a cheaper mousetrap: Wal-Mart's effect on retail prices. Journal of Urban Economics . Bates, T. (2005). Entrepreneur human capital inputs and small business longevity. The review of Economics and Statistics . Bontis, N. (2002). Managing organisational knowledge by diagnosing intellectual capital: framing

Finger Shoes In India

2906 words - 12 pages product will not only thrive but become a “must have” in the retail industry. There are five environmental factors that influence global and domestic marketing decisions that organizations must make. The five environmental factors are: Demographics (Age Distribution, and Social Environment), Politics (Regulatory Environment, Physical Transportation Infrastructure (Airports, Seaports Railroads, and Highway), Economics (Income), and Communication


2755 words - 12 pages Infrastructure: A Time for Transformation, World Bank, Washington, DC. * Arimah, B. C., (2010) the Face of Urban Poverty. Explaining the Prevalence of Slums in Developing Countries, UNU-WIDER Working Paper No. 2010/30. * Aschauer, D., 1989. Is Public Expenditure Productive? Journal of Monetary Economics 23, 177-200. * Calderon, C. and L. Serven, (2008), "Infrastructure and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research

Gang Activities In Chicago And It Suburbs

2979 words - 12 pages Gang activities in Chicago and it suburbs. Introduction Deindustrialization brought the new generation of young gangsters. Its number increases every year, all over the country, in cities of different sizes. Are those gangs the product of restructuring economics? Can they be considered a new social minority? What policy should the community use to control this problem? I decided to write my research paper about the gang activities

Bangladesh: Development Outcomes And Challenges In The Context Of Globalization

7698 words - 31 pages was reduced from about 50 percent to 40 percent during the decade of the 1990s, compared to a relatively much slower reduction in the previous decade (Table 1). The progress in the 1990s would have been more, had there not been a worsening of income distribution both in rural and urban areas. Even if poverty reduction continues in its present pace, it will fall short of the national target set in line with the Millenium Development Goal

Related Essays

Urbanisation In India Essay

6028 words - 25 pages Amenities, Sage, Delhi. Kundu, A. ( 1980 ) Measurement of Urban Processes in Regionalisation, Popular Prakashan, Bombay. Krishan, G. ( 1993 ) “ The Slowing Down of Indian Urbanisation”, Geography 78 ( 1 ) : 80-84 Malhotra, R. ( 1997 ) “ Incidence of Poverty in India : Towards a Consensus on Estimating the Poor “ Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Vol. 40, pp. 67102. Mathur, D. P. ( 1994 ) “ The State of India’s Urban Poverty “, Asian

Private Vehicle Ownership Essay

2528 words - 11 pages York: Routledge. 2009 [18] A. M. Bento, M. L. Cropper, A. M. Mobarakand K. Vinha. The effects of urban spatial structure on travel demand in the United States. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 2005. 87(3): 466–478. [19] J., Dargay, D. Gately and M. Sommer. Vehicle Ownership and Income Growth, Worldwide: 1960-2030. Energy Journal, 2007. 28(4): 1-32. [20] Figure

Blaaaa Essay

1340 words - 6 pages , local government, public utilities, research, the development in rural and urban areas. The state has the power over the agricultural activities the state since it contributes the state economics development. The Crop Industry, the Farmer’s Institution, Food and Agro-Based Industries, Inland Fisheries, and the researches that are funded by the state government. The State Next on the list is environment and

Local Pollution Problem Essay

1011 words - 5 pages motor vehicles means that the quality of the air in cities suffers. The findings of the EPA1 show that motor vehicles are the major source of urban air pollution. In Melbourne in 2006, motor vehicle emissions contributed the following levels of pollutants to the overall air quality: * 72 per cent of all carbon monoxide (CO) emissions * 70 per cent of all nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions * 28 per cent of all volatile organic compounds