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Urbanization, Industrialization, Popullation Essay

1391 words - 6 pages

Group Presentation Report
On topic: How and Why Industrialization, Population and Urbanization
are related: Social Relations, Social Control and Law?
Student: Yen Hoang
Keuka College


How and Why Industrialization, Population and Urbanization
are related: Social Relations, Social Control and Law?
Industrialization, Population Growth and Urbanization are in dynamic relationship with each other that also has been contributing to change various aspects of Social Relations, Social Control and Law. America is taken as the typical example illustrating this topic because this country is one of the pioneers starting up those processes and witnessing their pros and cons in spectacular ...view middle of the document...

The U.S government supported and protected those expansions by making grants of land to railroad entrepreneurs and by legislating protective tariffs, a tax on foreign, imported products. Besides, as business prospered, investors and bankers helped business leaders expand their operations by supplying the substantial amount of capital thanks to stocks, bonds or making loans to businesses. Furthermore, the process of industrialization evoked overpowering social developments. A free labor market was fostered by the freeing of the labor from feudal and customary obligations. Then, there was a determining role for a specific social type, the entrepreneur. In terms of workers, because labor law had not been launched, it was common for them to work 12 hours per day, six days a week with an average pay of 20 cents per hour in most dirty and dangerous factories. The hours in a workday were too long as the factories are indoors with closed window to avoid sunlight; thus the workers were not able to realize business working hours. Women were paid almost a quarter of what men made and child labor made up 20% part of workforce because their small could reach into tiny holes of machines to easily make things requiring small hands or bodies. Additionally, when the economy went down, business owners cut wages, increased work hours and responsibilities, or even laid off workers.
Industries and factories sprang up; the process of mechanization allowed unskilled labor to work with thanks to the use of machinery and repetitive work; new business revolved around cities bringing enormous number of job opportunities, people started to move from countryside to cities and caused urbanization. It is the change from a rural to an urban society in which witnesses the gradual augmentation in the proportion of people migrating to the cities to seek jobs in factories as agricultural jobs became less common. The rapid urbanization in the U.S is illustrated by the growth rate of city populations, especially in Boston, Chicago, New York, Seattle, Los Angeles, etc. For instances, according to the statistics provided by Linda Alchin, the population of Chicago in 1870 was 298,977; it rose to 1,698,575 in 1900 and in 1920 it reached the number of 2,701,705. Seattle is another typical example which had the population of 1,107 in 1870 and in 1920 it increased nearly 285 times with the number of 315,312. Additionally, in 1840, the U.S had only 131 cities and by 1900 that number had risen to over 1,700. Eventually these activities brought out abundant urbanization issues, such as environmental degradation, typically in the quality of water, air and noise; inefficient transportation system; overcrowding; housing; unemployment; rise in crime due to poverty and lack of control; the sharp contrast between the rich and the poor; etc. For example, cheap accommodation was developed as tall, narrow tenement buildings in dark, crowed, unpleasant and unhealthy living conditions. Pollution and...

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