War in Afghanistan
Definition of conflict
A conflict may be defined as the state of discord that is caused by perceived or actual opposition of values, needs or interests. It is a broad term that encompasses revolutions, invasions, wars or other struggles (for territory, resources or power) and essentially involves the use of force for the achievement of objective.
A conflict arises as a result of mutual incompatibility and subsequent expression of disagreement between the parties in the dispute over an important resource or agenda (Nicholson, 1992). The nature of the conflict is determined by the perspective of the people involved in the conflict. Though these perspectives may or ...view middle of the document...
A contrasting structure of the expectations is one such cause of conflicts. This structure is to a large extent dependent on the balance of power occurring between the states or parties (Healy, Brian and Arthur Stein, 1973). This balance is however susceptible to shift or tilt towards one or the other state at any point of time. The prime cause of the conflict is however not the balance of power, but the aggravation of the perception of this power shift usually by the factors such as cognitive imbalance and socio-cultural or religious dissimilarity. This potentially leads to the incongruence of the expectations, which creates conflict situation through demonstrations, friction, anti-foreign riots and heightened strain between the relations between the countries. It increases the hostility between the countries, enhancing the status of relations from disruption to conflict eruption, which then manifests into open confrontation. The incongruence or interruption is one of the key factors leading to various forms of the state conflict behaviour including stalling of communication channels, sanctions or complete invasion. There is a considerable role of other factors in the eruption of a conflict these include among others, the degree of distinction between two rival states with respect to the differences in the socio-cultural space, which effectively mirror the differences and distinctions of national capabilities and interests. These distinctions become a source of measurement of the relative positions of the states in regards to their values, meanings, class, status and norms.
Mutual awareness is yet another vital cause of the inter-state conflict that leads to the contact or salience between the two nations.
Additionally, perceptions and expectations of the rival countries with respect to each other play a critical role in the conflict outbreak. Situational content of perceptions depend to a large extend upon the actor state. When the structure of perceptions and expectations are unjust, wrong, and completely inconsistent with the balance of power of the countries, the countries try to alter these conditions or expectations in their favour, which essentially leads to major conflict.
Willingness of states to confront the other country is also a critical causal factor in the development of conflict situation and subsequent outbreak of the conflict. If the two parties to the dispute lack the willingness of confronting each other, there is less chance of the conflict taking place in such a situation.
The expectations of victory and the subjective assessment of the losses and gains in case of a conflict taking place, is also a necessary factor which leads to the increment in the willingness of a country to confront the other country or simply willingness to undertake complete military invasion of the other country. It involves defying the international rules and regulations regarding the safeguarding the sovereignty of a...