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In order to effectively interact with the legal department and staff, everyone must have some knowledge in respects to various areas of the law and the legal concepts that one will encounter on a day to day basis. Concepts and examples of common law, when it began, how it is used and where it is used as well as the sources will be discussed. The importance of precedent to the judicial decision-making process is also tied in with common law and how it is used when making court decisions and lastly, but just as important, knowing what equitable remedies means and how it is used in court decisions so as
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transaction act 1999 and confirmed by s.11 of the Electronic Transaction Act. Cap 88, the website, which contains the details and the prices of the goods, is considered as an invitation to treat. Besides, according to BPP Professional Education 2010, Common Law, p61, invitation to treat is considered as an indication that someone is ready to receive offers in order to make a binding contract. Therefore, the website contains the details and the prices of the goods is considered as an invitation to another party to make business offers and it is not an offer.
The contracts which are made through the internet need an offer and acceptance to be valid.
* In the case of Tech Ltd and Tuan:
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. Civil law are cases where one or both parties are looking for compensation instead of jail time. Civil law covers anything that criminal law does not cover in the court system.
4. Common vs. Civil law countries- Common law countries prosecute with the concept of "Stare Decisis" meaning, let the decision stand. This means that these countries such as the United States of America make decisions based on precedent. These countries are case law countries and look at how past cases were decided and use that in the decision process when prosecuting. Unlike common law countries, civil law countries do not rely on precedent but instead prosecute lawsuits on a case to case basis without looking at how past cases had been decided.
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. The meaning to be given to the words of the contract, or, in other words, its construction, when a dispute arises about it, must be determined by a judge or court. The result is, that certain more or less common clauses in contracts of affreightment have come before the courts for construction, and the decisions in these cases are treated practically, though not perhaps quite logically, as rules of law determining the sense to be put upon certain forms of expression in common use in shipping contracts.
A third way in which the law interferes is by laying down certain rules by which the rights of the parties are to be regulated in the absence of any express stipulation with regard to the
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The Role and Functions of Law
Since the beginning of recorded history, laws have played a significant role in the way society has chosen to govern itself. From Jewish and Roman law in biblical days to the constitution-bound laws of modern democracies, law has established rights and responsibilities for individual citizens and businesses that reflect the accepted ethics of society. Law is a “body of rules of actions or conducts prescribed by a controlling authority and having legal binding force” (Melvin, 2011). It serves to unite a diverse population of people under a common set of rules that regulate behavior and protect individuals and businesses from others who violate those rules
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categories include but are not limited to the United States constitutions, statutes and common law, administrative regulations and decisions, treaties, ordinances, and executive orders.
United States Constitution
The constitution is the overriding law, because it establishes the ground rules for the government at either the state or federal level. This includes creating the branches of the government that grant and refuse certain powers to each branch, and preventing other governmental agencies from passing certain laws, in particularly those which limit individual rights.
Statutes and Common Law
A statute is a law passed by elected representatives of the legislative branch of
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Role and Functions of Law
May 28, 2012
Role and Functions of Law
The history of law goes back thousands of years. It seems that law has popped up in many civilizations at different times over the course of their evolution. The system of law practiced in the United States today is derived from the English common law that was in place during the revolutionary war. The role and function of law can be a very complicated topic for discussion. Law can be defined as “the body of official rules and regulations, generally found in constitutions, legislation, judicial
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Role and Function of Law
Understanding the role and function that law plays in business and society is a large undertaking. There are many facets that help define, shape and regulate the current commercial and social environment. Focusing on key objectives and a general intent, the landscape can be less daunting. Fundamentally, law establishes a common protection of interest and uniformity in which individuals, society and businesses can operate and thrive simultaneously. Without laws to govern the actions of people in society, it is highly likely all social structure and commerce would collapse (Melvin, 2011).
Role of Law in Business
Law shapes every aspect of business. Law
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allocation of resources, including determination of what goods and services should be produced, and in what quantity, is planned by the government.
C. Mixed Economy
8. Three cheers or no cheers for capitalism?
9. Where is the world to be an entrepreneur
11. Legal system: common law, civil law, theocratic law-Islamic banking
1. The legal system of a country refers to the rules, or laws, that regulate behavior along with the processes by which the laws are enforced and through which redress for grievances is obtained. (Tradition refers to a country’s legal history, precedent to cases that have come before the courts in the past, and custom to the ways in which
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, and the trial court properly granted Mellow Mushroom’s motion for summary judgment.
2. Chapter-end Questions
1.3. Legal Systems. What are the key differences between a common law system and a civil law system? Why do some countries have common law systems and others have civil law systems?
• The common law system is the body of law developed from custom or judicial decisions in English and U.S. courts, not attributable to a legislature.
• The civil law system is derived from that of the Roman Empire and based on a code rather than case law; the predominant system of
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control any commercial use of his/her name, image, or some other aspects of one's identity. In the U.S., it is a state law-based right. In the U.S., right of publicity is enforced through state law. The recognition of the right varies from state to state. Some states have clearly provided this right by way of statute. States which do not have specific legislation relating to the right to publicity recognize the right by way of common law. It is generally considered a property right rather than a personal right. So the right of publicity is descendible to the person's heirs after their death.
The Right of Publicity is a rapidly-evolving right with great increase in reported cases in the
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Tort and contract law are similar in that both involve a breach of duties, and in modern law these duties have blurred and it may not be clear whether an action "sounds in tort or contract". With contract violations, the breach has to do with the duties that have been named in the contract. Tort violations however also involve some sort of breach of duty which can be viewed as the causes of action which are not defined in other areas such as contract or fiduciary law,as in the case of “Donoghue v Stevenson (1932)”. The tort of negligence is the most common type of tort and can be divided into four component parts that the plaintiff must prove to establish negligence.
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Does the decision in Island Export Finance Ltd v Umunna represent the law in Singapore?
To determine whether the decision in Island Export Finance Ltd (IEF Ltd) v Umunna represent the law in Singapore, the application of the common and statutory law will be used. Upon applying the right principles, the decision will represent Singapore law.
Resignation to take up a corporate opportunity
Singapore law states that the court held a director breached of his duty by taking up the opportunity if he resigns from a company to take up a corporate opportunity without the company’s permission where (i) the resignation was prompted or influenced by a desire to acquire the opportunity
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The Courts in Our Criminal Justice System
Wednesday, August 10, 2011
After reviewing the difference between the Texas Court System and The Federal Court System, I have learned that each function quite differently, but in the end have a common ground to what is expected of the Laws of The Land. For instance, the structure is different in various way such as: the Federal Court System in Article III indicates how the Constitution devote the legal power of the United States in the Federal Court System - as well as -Congress using its power to institute the thirteen U.S. Court of Appeals, the 94 U.S. District Courts, and more. Whereas, in Article V, the Texas Constitution devotes the
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Hammurabi’s rule, then this situation might have actually happened. Hammurabi was an ancient king who ruled a small city-state in Mesopotamia, called Babylonia. Hammurabi ruled for 42 years from 1834 BCE (Before Common Era) - 1792BCE. Near the end of Hammurabi's of rule, he created a law code which he carved on a large stone column called a stele. Now you know a little background, we can start answering our main question: Was Hammurabi’s Code just? I don’t think so and here are three reasons why.
Hammurabi’s Family Law was unjust; this is shown in Law 129 where if a man wants to marry a second wife because his first wife is sick, he could become sick infecting who know how many other people! (Doc C) Or in Law 195 is unfair because the punishment for striking your father is cutting your hands off!(Doc C) What if your father was being really mean and hits you because he was angry at someone else? Sometimes you have to defend yourself!
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Week 1 Assignment
Even though not all laws are defined by legislature, general rules have been put in place to maintain a legal standard. Being established by the English almost a thousand years ago, it moves with the times and allows changes to come in and set a new precedent or change what is already in place. Common law strives to maintain that standard by obligating judges to rule based on the precedents that have already been established.
The sources of American law are separated into the primary and secondary sources. The
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their will or better judgment.
2.writing and form. Contracts must be in writing or in certain form. If not in both it can be raised against enforcement of the contract.
Sources of contract law: 1 : common law of contracts 2. the restatement of the law of contracts. The compilation of model contract law principles drafted by legal scholars
UCC uniform commercial code.
Classification of contracts.
Bilateral Contracts: If considerations in both directions are to be moved after the contract, it is called Bilateral Contract.
Unilateral Contract: If considerations is to be moved in one direction only after the Contract, it is called Unilateral Contract. If customer spend $20 they will get $10
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, whether they involve merchants or not. However, Article 2 contains several provisions that either apply only to merchants or impose a greater duty on merchants. UCC 2-104(1) defines a merchant as (1) a person who deals in the goods of the kind involved in the transaction or (2) a person who by his or her occupation holds himself or herself out as having knowledge or skill peculiar to the goods involved in the transaction (Cheeseman, p. 302).”
A scenario of how Article 2 of the UCC makes changes to the common law of contracts is tied to how the common law rule works in the first place an offer must be made definite when regarding its terms of when it was accepted. Under Article 2 of the UCC it
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AUL 101 Introduction to Common Law and American Legal System
Administrative agencies and executive departments
Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rulemaking, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. This kind of law is considered as a branch of public law and they are faced with the decision-making of administartive units of government, such as tribunals, commissions, or boards, that are considered as a part of national regulatory scheme, in areas that include police law, international trade, manufacturing, the
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a) Patient Consultation Fee - PhP ______ / consultation
PROCEDURE | PROFESSIONAL FEES * |
* Professional fees indicated above is the commission received for every procedure which is 20% of the dental fees
4. The following are my schedule of discounts:
Medical / Dental colleagues | 100% discount |
Parents and parents in-law of medical / Dental colleagues | 100% discount |
Children (legitimate or illegitimate) of medical / Dental colleagues | 100% discount |
Legal spouse and common-law partners of medical / Dental colleagues | 100% discount
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convince somebody to do something that I want them to do
Federalist #10- Paper where James Madison defends factions…its impossible to have a govt without factions…people are always going to group themselves according to their beliefs
John Marshall- first great supreme court justice…set parameters of where the court will work
Common law- good portion of our legal system…legal decisions are based on traditions in our communities
Precedent- comes out of common law…tries cases based on how cases were decided in the past
Stare Decisis- “to stand by what’s been decided”…if somebody has been tried for something, they need to stick by what they decided the first time
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worshiped and served the creature rather than the creator” (Romans 1:25). The natural world is a depraved world “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Romans 3:23) and because of that “the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of man, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth” (Romans 1:18).
Human Identity is found in knowing our human nature and knowing Christ. Because sin and death entered the world through Adam, all are born in sin (Romans 5:12). Every human is born a sinner but it was not until the giving of the law that sin came alive for through the law came the knowledge of sin. The law provides humanity with a divine
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must keep in mind as new staff is brought on into the company. The following will be a discussion of the laws that Kudler and any potential employees must think about as well as a checklist of some of the questions that need to be asked when considering and evaluating taking on new employees.
Employment discrimination, employee privacy, and common law claims for wrongful termination have become hot topics in today’s news.
1. How will Kudler handle Workers’ compensation? Will they hire new people as employees or as independent contractors as independent are not protected by this law.
2. How will Kudler ensure that it is providing a safe workplace and is in accordance with all OSHA
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Every society has rules to go by and laws that must not be broken and along with that is the criminal justice that even gives the criminal rights. Criminals in the United States are to be given their rights and not to have harm to them in any way under the justice system as they may be freed from their prosecution and their case be acquitted if found in their favor if an act of unjust or immoral conduct has been found. Law enforcement professionals must execute justice by upholding the law in an ethical and constitutional manner.
“The United States Department of Justice seeks to prevent or resolve community conflicts and tensions arising from actions, policies, and practices
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In order for a police organization to fully do their job, there are certain responsibilities and strategies that they must first understand and learn to do in order to be a well- rounded police organization and or officer. Police responsibilities include; Enforce the Law, to enforce the laws effectively, officers must know the law and understand the community's priorities about what rules are most relevant. Arrest Offenders, upon identifying individuals who are breaking the law, officers must apprehend them, in the safest manner possible. Prevent Crime, by anticipating crime risk and reducing crime opportunities, agent reduces actual crime and improve public trust and safety. Preserve the
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the law of the land." This principle evolved to mean that no person should be deprived of freedom without Due Process of Law.
The writ of habeas corpus was first used by the common-law courts in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century England. These courts, composed of legal professionals, were in competition with feudal courts, which were controlled by local landowners, or "lords." The feudal courts lacked procedural consistency, and on that basis, the common-law courts began to issue writs demanding the release of persons imprisoned by them. From the late fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries, the common-law courts used the writ to order the release of persons held by royal courts, such as
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The current gun control laws should be strictly enforced to avoid creating new laws. News laws make it harder on law abiding citizens to purchase firearms, ammunition, and magazines/clips. Some feel it would decrease gun violence by creating new laws. This is unfair to thousands of people who are gun advocates, including myself.
Hundreds of thousands of people own a gun, if not more than one gun. In order to become a gun owner, there are legal steps to be followed in order to earn a permit. These steps are created due to laws that have been put into place, and have to be followed in order to be a valid owner. At eighteen you can legally purchase certain firearms. You can also earn
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partnership arrangement between the three of them and in order to establish whether this was the arrangement it is necessary to refer to the Partnership Act 1963 and previous case law.
APPLYING THE PARTNERSHIP ACT 1963 and PREVIOUS CASE LAW TO THEIR CASE:
A partnership is NOT a separate legal entity like a company. Each partner is an individual and bound to other partners by the partnership agreement whether written oral or implied. There are no special formalities – just carrying on business in common suffices.
Is There a Partnership between Jack Jill and Marco?
The definition of a partnership does not vary across jurisdictions, with each definition encompassing the following criteria in
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stare decisis “let the decision stand”; the principle that the decision of a court should serve as a guide or precedent and control the decision of a similar case in the future.
administrative regulations rules made by state and federal administrative agencies.
case law law that includes principles that are expressed for the first time in court decisions.
common law the body of unwritten principles originally based upon the usages and customs of the community that were recognized and enforced by the courts.
constitution a body of principles that establishes the structure of a government and the relationship of the government to the
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. According to FBI Crime Index Statistics, the top four big cities in America with the lowest rates of violent crime are all in border states—San Diego, Phoenix, El Paso, and Austin.
Working with Mexico.
- Through the Twenty-First Century Border Initiative, the United States is partnering with the Government of Mexico to improve coordination in planning, financing, building, and operating bi-national infrastructure; to enhance cross-border commerce and ties while managing our common threats; and to augment law enforcement cooperation to disrupt “criminal flows” and enhance public safety.
Working with Canada.
- The Administration is working with Canada to enhance joint law enforcement
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of U.S. laws, taking into consideration common law heritage. Include your opinion as to what should or should not be a law and what should be considered when creating laws.
Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
CJS 220 Week 3 Checkpoint Due Process
FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT
Write a 200- to 300-word response describing the concept of due process, including how it applies to the criminal justice system. …………………………………………………………………
CJS 220 Week 3 Checkpoint Legal Defenses
FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT
Write a 200- to 300-word response describing three of the legal defenses. Include a definition of the
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Eugenics focuses on the unique inborn mental and physical qualities of groups and the factors that influenced the full development of those qualities within a society. Eugenics can be considered the science of promoting good births within a society rather than in humanity, because the concept of good birth varies from society to society. The qualities of individuals in a group are acquired, it was believed, from a common ancestor who possessed unique inborn mental and physical qualities that were passed from generation to generation. Genetics and heredity are the basic building blocks of eugenics but rapid industrialization, urbanization, intense growth of American industry, agricultural
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Maldives is an island nation in the Indian Ocean neighboring countries are India and Sri Lanka. Previously, the country was sultanate under Portuguese and then was British protectorate and obtained independence in 1965. Islam is the state religion and Dhivehi is a local language. English is widely spoken and considered as business language. The country is made up of 1,190 islands in 20 atolls which are spread over roughly 90,000 square kilometer. Only 192 of the islands are inhabited, and 70 percent of those have a population of less than 1,000 people.
The Maldives legal system is based on an admixture of Islamic Law and English common law. English common law greatly
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STATUTORY INTERPRETATION: THE MEANING OF MEANING
RMIT University, Melbourne School of Accounting and Law, Symposium on Statutory Interpretation Chapter House, St. Paul‟s Cathedral 13 August 2009.
The Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG
RMIT UNIVERSITY, MELBOURNE SCHOOL OF ACCOUNTING AND LAW SYMPOSIUM ON STATUTORY INTERPRETATION CHAPTER HOUSE, ST. PAUL’S CATHEDRAL 13 AUGUST 2009
STATUTORY INTERPRETATION: THE MEANING OF MEANING
The Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG THE MAIN TASK OF MODERN LAWYERS Although we still describe ours as a common law system (to distinguish it from the countries of the civil law tradition), the label is now looking somewhat dubious.
The distinctive feature of
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report clarify its purposes of defining and demonstrating the contract and terms and conditions of contract. It also expresses an enough illustration of negligence which is a key fact to the contract. Whatsoever, parties involved within an agreement or contract need to have an well understanding of contract and negligence for every day business dealings which is mentioned in a suitable way in this report.
Andrew Burrows,Ewan McKendrick,James Edelman (2007). Cases and materials on the law of restitution 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University.
BPP Professional Education, (2004). Mandatory Unit 5 Common Law I supporting foundation degrees. West Midlands, England: W M Print
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of emotional stability. On the other hand, “punishers” argue that victims deserve the protection of criminal law and if this serves its purpose, victims will then have a sense of well-being; thus, making the process pass as a therapeutic one (Straus 257).
The Philippine law may be said to have a broad coverage as far as children are concerned but may show a lack in the battle against VAW. Programs in regard to the combat against child abuse issues on domestic car, parental arrangements, protection and civil rights have their own success stories. The Philippine law includes within its ambit, not only common children of the woman survivor and perpetrator, but also “her children”, whether
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Criminology as one of the most popular degree of choice because of its distinct and various field of profession of licensed criminologist from the most common law enforcer or police officer and the allied career like investigator, forensic science technicians, security guard dispatcher, academician or professor; and non passer board exam security officer, personal body guard and bouncer.
But employment of the graduates of criminology is not certain. Only four of every 10 graduates will land a job within the year of their graduation, a recent study reveals.
A study conducted by Dr. Roberto Padua and Dr. Juliet Daguay of Mindanao Polytechnic State College reveals that lack of jobs has
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The United States courts and history and its purpose has been a strong order of justice in the nation since the first time it was established. The system was designed to allow the citizens of the United States to receive a fair criminal trial regardless of social status, gender, race, and ethnic background. The system is composed by several different elements and processes that are at times very complicated. The best way to understand how the system works is to examine the structure and function of the different courts in America. This paper will describe a court and its purpose, define the dual court system and describe the role that early legal codes, the common law, and precedent
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considered a lower class of people, some men still seemed to be more interested in pursuing young boys, this was a common practice called pederasty.
It was made possible for men to meet lovers in different types of all male social settings, such as the military where an older man was supposed to help train a younger boy to become a better soldier. The soldier would that the younger boy under his wing, and they would establish a bond between them. Another common setting for men to meet boys was the gymnasium, where it was common for boys and trainers to practice in the nude. All of these actions were common in Greek culture, but it was the older man who was to be the pursuer, and the
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and distinct from its owners under state corporation
law. (p. 508).
Cumulative dividend A feature of preferred stock entitling
the stockholder to receive current and unpaid prior-year
dividends before common stockholders receive any dividends.
Declaration date The date the board of directors formally declares
the dividend and announces it to stockholders. (p. 526).
Deficit A debit balance in retained earnings. (p. 534).
Dividend A distribution by a corporation to its stockholders
on a pro rata (proportional) basis. (p. 525).
Liquidating dividend A dividend declared out of paid-in
capital. (p. 526).
No-par-value stock Capital stock that has not been assigned
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, railways offered a cheap and fast way to transfer goods and people, and steamships also played a major role in integrating the world economy in the nineteenth century. The implementation of electric telegraphs, telephones, radios, and typewriters also facilitated business and personal communication.
Some of the major elements of the legal and social environments conducive to economic development during that period included legal foundations, economic thought and policy, and education and literacy. With legal foundations, came Britian's Common Law and France's Code Civille and Code de Commerce. Britian's Common Law provided protection of private property, and incorporated various customs of
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The Future of Criminal Justice
University Of Phoenix
Foundations of Criminal Justice
April 19, 2010
The Future of Criminal Justice
Terrorism has never been in the States; only in third world countries. Since 9/11-2001 is has been a reality and ongoing nightmare and hit close to home. The attack on the World Trade Centers in New York was a wakeup call. United States has been on high alert ever since, waiting for the next possible Terrorists attack. This paper will explain why terrorism is a law enforcement concern as well as how terrorism is considered a crime. At last the paper will state some recommendations that the American Criminal Justice should
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discussed that most of the cost for a fireworks display is for skilled labor, insurance, and the actual service of setting off the fireworks. No other details were discussed. The owner is anticipating that new employees will need to be hired, but he is worried that if the large orders for fireworks displays do not continue, the company will not have the funds to pay the new employees. The owner is now considering changing the business entity, but he does not know what entity to form or how to form it.
The owner has asked you to do the following:
* Determine if the contracts with the businesses will be governed by common law or the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), and explain why
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us to imagine.
There is some biblical basis Jesus had to be born as a human being for several reasons. Gal 4:4-5 says, “To redeem those under law”. Only a perfect human (Jesus Christ) could perfectly keep the law and perfectly fulfill the law, and redeeming us from that guilt, which He accomplished on the cross. In His humanity, Jesus was subjected to all the same kinds of trials like us; therefore, He is able to sympathize with us and to help us. He was tempted; He was persecuted; He was poor; He was despised; He suffered physical pain. Only a human being could experience these things, and only a human being could fully understand them through experience. (Hebrews 4:15).
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. Thus, according to Aristotle there is only a velocity if there is a force, but according to Newton an object with a certain velocity maintains that velocity unless a force acts on it to cause an acceleration (that is, a change in the velocity). As we have noted earlier in conjunction with the discussion of Galileo, Aristotle's view seems to be more in accord with common sense, but that is because of a failure to appreciate the role played by frictional forces. Once account is taken of all forces acting in a given situation it is the dynamics of Galileo and Newton, not of Aristotle, that are found to be in accord with the observations.
Newton's Third Law of Motion:
III. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
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the market participants leads OTC construction progress. The participants ‘ common interests emerge in the markets functions and values, trading rules and other legal system design and arrangement. The participants follow the honesty, equality, mutual benefit and other basic principle of civil law, in less regard of the legal norms of public law. Autonomy of the will and other basic principle of civil law play an core role in OTC markets. It is the innovation in this essay that we define OTC legal system subject to private law, and we deduct following conclusions just from this origin.
In the second part, we discuss how to regulate the OTC market maker. We define a market maker or liquidity
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was 357,803 dropped to about 150,000 immigrant’s in1924-1925. This law succeeded in its original goal. This greatly affected our culture and it showed the way that we wanted to keep it safe it also helped to reassure hundreds of thousands of citizens that they were free from communism. We were scared of the communists especially as they had overthrown the royal family of Russia, and murdered them the following year. (Web)
The government did not want alcohol to change the culture of our country ; they reacted to this by passing the prohibition law. The prohibition law was a controversial law that made transporting, selling, and buying of alcohol illegal. It did not
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labor, insurance, and setting off fireworks. Besides hiring new employees, we might run into a problem where if the large orders stop, we might not have the funds to continue to pay extra help. In this paper I will determine which contract the owner and the other business will need.
I will also need to determine if the contract is governed under the common law or the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC). Conduct to see if all the five essentials elements are met in the contact. Develop different employee types and relationships while discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each related to Acme Fireworks. Lastly, I will analyze different alternatives related to why Acme Fireworks
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Traditional and Nontraditional Litigation
University of Phoenix
June 21, 2012
David L. Wilson
Traditional and Nontraditional Litigation
People break laws, people do not agree, civil suits filed, and litigation begins. Litigation is closely identified with civil law or tort law and the bringing of lawsuits. Lawsuits are legally authorized controversies judged by a court of law, and when one individual sues another individual, they are engaging in litigation law. The purpose of a lawsuit is to remedy an injustice or to enforce a right (HG, 1995-2012). Litigation is a contest authorized by law, for the purpose of enforcing a right. Litigation is the
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Religion Values and Ethics
* Founder Zeno, 3rdC BC
* As the feelings that govern +ve/-ve choices, which can either be based on religious or secular understanding (i.e. law).
* Also can be governed by societal norms – nb. can be quite grey = corrupt societal standards (i.e. the death penalty in the US)
* Religion perspectives of ethics advocated a standard. (Also applies to atheism).
* Being ethical doesn’t not mean doing as the law requires us
* Ethics and morals are similar; but morals are defined on personal character, whereas ethics stresses the social system.
* Being indifferent to external influences
* Good/evil are