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Lymphatic/Immune System Unit Performance Assessment
Your written work should contain 3 sections:
An explanation of the relationship between lymphatic structures and the immune system (~1
a. Student work includes a detailed description of all of the structures of the lymphatic system
(including lymph nodes and vessels, spleen, thymus, tonsils, Peyer's patches, and appendix),
the location of each, and how that location supports the functions of immunity required by
An explanation about how the immune system works and how a vaccine effects that system (~3-4
a. Student work includes a description of the "three levels" of immune
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Outline and evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and stress related illness (12 marks)
Cohen et al (1993) investigated the role of general life stress on vulnerability to the common cold virus. He found that the chance of developing a cold, i.e. failing to fight off the infection, was significantly correlated with stress index scores. Cohen et al. concluded that life stress and negative emotions reduce the effectiveness of our immune system, leaving participants less able to resist viral infection.
Support for research into the relationship between the immune system and stress related illness came from studies such as Evans and
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The Music Effect
Can music really effect mood, behavior, and the way we think? The answer is yes, with a big fat Y! There are certain types or genres of music that affect not just your physicality but your mind as well. There is evidence that it greatly impacts the way we perceive. A mere snippet of a song can trigger memories as vivid as anything. A tune can induce emotions ranging from overwhelming joy to deep sorrow and can drive listeners into a state of frenzy. Music can also kick a long haunting addiction, boost your immune system, even repair brain damage. In this paper we’ll explore how the effects of music on a person can be just as dangerous or therapeutic as some of
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with certain substances, called allergens. The rash occurs as a reaction of the body’s immune system to expel the allergen from the skin. Common allergens are often found in jewelry and cosmetics metals.
Irritant Contact Dermatitis. This skin rash does not require exposure to an allergen but can develop when you come in contact with substances such as detergents, oils, skin cleansers, and solvents.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by skin scaling and inflammation. This disease affects about 5.5 million people in the United States. It occurs in all age groups and affects both men and women. When psoriasis develops, patches of skin redden and become covered with scales. The skin then cracks and may cause severe irritation in places like the face, scalp,
elbows, knees, and lower back.
It is believed that psoriasis is a disorder of the immune system in which there are not enough white blood cells to help protect the body against infection and diseases of this type.
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themselves to completely relax. Many indicate that they sleep more deeply and restfully after satisfying lovemaking.”
4. It Can Boost Your Immune System
With all the concerns about cold and flu viruses, combating germs can sometimes feel like a full-time job. Surprisingly, there may be something you can do in the bedroom to keep your immune system strong, says Dr. Ebanks, who points to a study by researchers at Wilkes University in Pennsylvania. “Individuals who have sex once or twice a week show 30 percent higher levels of an antibody called immunoglobulin A, which is known to boost the immune system,” he says. So, make this your new cold-and-flu season mantra: Wash your hands and make a bedroom
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What are scientist doing to solve the problem of psoriasis?
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease , which is abnormal activity of the body's immune system, in which the T-cells behave abnormally this then affects the skin.(1) Psoriasis happens when the skin replacement process speeds up, taking just a few days to replace skin cells that usually take 21-28 days, the skin cells build up , instead of shedding the extra skin cells they form raised areas on the skin, which can be flaky, scaly or red. (2)There is not a fully understood cause of psoriasis, but it is believed to have a genetic component, and is believed to be triggered by stress and/or injury to the skin.(3)It’s also believed
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antibodies). All the water, salts and proteins are ultimately derived from the food we eat. Water and salts are regulated by the renal system. Albumin is produced by the liver and antibodies are a product of the immune system. There is also a balance of proteins and water within the vasculature (intravascular space) and without (extravascular space). There is always an influx or efflux balance between the tissues and the vasculature depending on the osmotic and mechanical pressure. This is all in one giant balance or homeostasis most of the time.
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stumped. Many are calling multiple sclerosis an autoimmune disease, which means your immune system is fighting off the healthy cells mistakenly. There are others who disagree that are calling the disease immune-mediated. This is because a particular antigen that your immune cells are attacking is still unknown. Multiple sclerosis attacks the central nervous system (CNS) that consists of the brain, spinal cord, and the optic nerves. Your body’s immune system attacks the protective coating around nerve cells called myelin. The damage that is done to the nerve cells affects the messages that are sent between the brain and your body and leads to multiple sclerosis, which causes problems for
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Addison’s Disease is usually caused by a problem with the adrenal glands themselves. A lot of the time the body’s self-defense mechanism, the immune system, mistakenly attacks the adrenal glands. When these attacks happen it destroys the outer layer of the glands. Long-lasting infections such as HIV or tuberculosis can also harm the glands. Addison’s disease can also be brought on by body spreading cancer cells.
All treatment associated for Addison’s Disease is in the form of hormone replacement therapy. One drug you could use would be oral corticosteroids. A doctor would prescribe these pills to you to help replace aldosterone. Other medicines such as hydrocortisone, prednisone, or cortisone acetate may be used to replace cortisol. Another form of treatment would be corticosteroid injections. These injections are normally used if a patient experiences vomiting when taking the oral corticosteroids and can’t keep the pills down.
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referred to as the neck of the womb.
* HPV(Human papilloma virus infection is a sexually transmitted virus.)
* Certain genetic factors
* Weakened immune system
* Long-term mental stress
* Giving birth at a very young age
* Don’t smoke.
* Use condoms during sex.*
* Limit your number of sexual partners.
* Getting an HPV Vaccine
Prostate cancer is a disease which only affects men. Cancer begins to grow in the prostate - a gland in the male reproductive system.
* A high-fat diet
* Having a sedentary lifestyle
* Consuming high level of calcium
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provide for improving their health condition and have been suggested to get involved in maladaptive behavior for coping up with the stressful situations.
Stress and the Immune System
The immune system is actually responsible for providing defense for our body against any type of disease. The body is continuously involved in search for invading microbes and destroys them accordingly to protect the individual. It has been suggested that it is not the occasional stress but incidence of chronic stress that weakens the body’s defensive mechanism and immunity. This weakening of the defensive system increased the chance of body being attacked by different chronic diseases such as flu or
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In 2000, George Bierson’s "Marijuana, the Deceptive Drug", was published by the Massachusetts News. Bierson concludes that marijuana is harmful in many ways, including brain damage, damage to the reproductive system, and weakening of the immune system. He also attempts to convince the reader that marijuana is a "gateway drug" that leads the users to venture into much harder drugs. I believe that research to support anything can be found if one is looking hard enough, but that the fallacy of Bierson’s conclusion is due to his research seeking facts to support an already-assumed conclusion. Based on my research and my own personal experience, I have found that several of his
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in their lives, they are a lot better off," says Steve Wilson, a psychologist and laugh therapist. "They might be healthier too.” Laughing is so simple and works great to lighten the mood, but what a lot of people do not know is there are many health benefits of laughing.
I. Humor can lower your blood pressure.
a. Stress does cause an increase in blood pressure levels.
b. Laughter helps you calm down and relieve that stress causing your blood pressure to do down.
c. A good laugh can leave your muscles relaxed for up to 45 minutes after.
II. Laughter boosts the immune system.
a. It improves your resistance to disease by increasing immune cells and infection
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has suffered cardiac arrest recently, and without a transplant, she will most likely not reach another birthday. Per medical laboratory studies and determination, Lisa is a match for the current heart transplant, and given her weakened immune system and her previous system failure, her survival rate after transplant may not be perfect, but is in the acceptable range for heart transplant recipients. Her prognosis will improve drastically in all her other areas hopefully of pathology and her long term life expectancy in her 20’s which may improve given the benefits of a new heart. It was a difficult moral and ethical decision to by pass the two other available recipients, but as their life
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Can I live without my spleen?
The spleen is a lymphoid organ, part of the Lymphatic System. It is the size of a closed fist and lies just below the diaphragm, tucked against the top of the stomach on the left side of the abdominal cavity (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013). It is the first organ in the embryo to produce red blood cells (Turbyville, 2012) but, later in life, it functions as a filter to remove old or damaged red blood cells from circulation. It also stores about 250mL of blood which can be released into the blood circulation in emergencies (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013). As a part of the immune system, it stores and produces lymphocytes which produce essential antibodies and release
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Vitamins are a valuable component to a healthy diet, because our bodies cannot make them or our bodies cannot produce enough of them to provide adequate nutrition to our cells. Vitamins are essential for everyday body functions such as cell growth, blood cell production, hormone production, and metabolism. Vitamins can also affect body systems such as the reproductive system, circulatory system, and the immune system.
Fat soluble vitamins consist of vitamin A, D, E, and K. These vitamins only dissolve in fat not in water and are stored in fatty tissues as well as the liver. These vitamins can be stored for long periods of time and people consuming a well-balanced diet
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by bullying and other forms of bad behavior such as incivility and ostracism. Among the findings was found that: Stress affects the workload of both partners. When one partner is stressed, the other one often ends up picking up more of the work that has to be done to keep the household running, which often strains the couple’s relationship.
Carrying anxiety home from the office raises the risk of numerous health problems, including high blood pressure, a weakened immune system, headaches, depression and insomnia. This leads to poor performance at work and at home. When an employee is recognized and valued at work they make meaningful contributions and that attitude comes home.
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Positive and Negative Emotions
August 23, 2015
Positive and Negative Emotions
“Think positive” is something we hear a lot growing up but there are scientific reasons to back up your mother’s talks. Thinking positive can actually help with well-being. Now by well-being I do not mean just your emotional health, I am talking about it being proven to make a difference physically. In regards to the cardiovascular and immune system health it has been proven that keeping your head up and looking at the positive in life can help your condition. It even makes a difference in the results of major illnesses such as cancer. Thinking positive does of course help mental
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health. Fresh air helps us to improve our immune system and overall health. So a morning walk is very useful for health.
Sunlight helps our body to produce vitamin-D. A dirty and damp atmosphere causes lots of diseases. Fresh and pure drinking water is also necessary for good health. Impure drinking- water is the cause of several diseases. So, we must take care of these things.
Food: Food is another necessary thing for the body. Nutritious foods helps us to maintain good health. Consumption of healthy foods helps us to minimize any health related problems. We all should know, how, when and what to eat.
We should always include a portion of green vegetables, fruits or salads in our
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the body is not the humans, but is God’s. The “Temple,” to stay strong, needs consistent amounts of food and without it, it will crash.
Second, fad diets are unhealthy because it could cause severe illness. The first way fad diets could cause problems is they could intervene with the nervous system and the body could become ill. Goldbloom alludes “There is a broad spectrum of neurophysiologic changes associated with eating disorders.” Neuro- is relating to the nervous system and physiology is the scientific study of function in living systems; therefore, neurophysiologic means the branch of physiology dealing with the functions of the nervous system. The nervous system consists of the
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* Dengue Fever
8. What is the difference between offensive and defensive strategies to establish disease? (2)
* Pathogens have adaptive defensive strategies that allow them to escape destruction by the host immune system and offensive strategies that result in damage to the host.
9. Pick 2 defensive strategies and describe them. (4)
* Bacteria Adhesins
* The bacterium that causes gonorrhea has adhesins that enable the bacterium to resist being washed away by the flow of urine. Bacteria lacking adhesins would tend to be swept away and unable to colonize cell surfaces at the portal of the entry.
* Antigenic Variation
* The causative agents of influenza
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Alexion Pharmaceuticals is the original developer and distributor of Soliris, a drug used in treating the rare disorders Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The company is also involved in research regarding the immune system and how it can be stopped from attacking healthy tissue. Alexion’s initial stock price was $109.34 and ending stock price was $116.60. Their highest stock price was $125.00 and lowest was $106.32. Their percentage gained was 6.6%. Their stock prices are for the most part consistent. Over the past few months the stock prices have fluctuated somewhat. The two reasons they have fluctuated greatly is
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. Johns wort has proved to be a very effective herbal supplement not only being useful with chemotherapy patients but also patients with severe depression. A random study also showed that St. Johns wort is more effective than fluoxetine, a common depression supplement, when treating patients with severe depression.
Echinacea is most commonly used to stimulate the immune system. Very little research has been conducted to find the exact effect it has on oncology patients however, Echinacea has been proven to help symptoms of the common cold in pediatric oncology patients. Although all three herbal supplements have shown positive results in minimizing side effects of chemotherapy, combining
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basic food groups. Vegetables and fruits, grains, meats and other protein causing solutions, dairy and some oils and fats, we will understand these play an important part of body functions. Fruits and vegetables are low in calories and contain fiber. Fiber helps the body's heart health, as well as the digestive system. They are a great source of vitamin A and C, which contributes to the immune system and the strength of your eyes. Natural grains are high in fiber, but you have to be careful with processed grain products because it lacks the nutrients of whole grains. Meats and protein containing foods are great to enhance your muscle building properties, iron, and B vitamins. Dairy is a
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measuring about315–280 nm, and UV-C that measures about 280–100 nm. UV-C, which is very dangerous to all living beings, is completely screened out by a blend of dioxygen and ozone by around 35 kilometres altitude (Reid, 2000).
UV-B emission can be unsafe to the skin and is the chief cause of sunburn from excessive exposure can also be a foundation of cataracts, immune system weaknesses, and genetic impairment, ensuing in harms such as skin cancer. The O3 layer, which absorbs emissions from about 200 nm to 310 nm and a maximal concentration at about 250 nm is very active at curtaining out UV-B emission with a wavelength measuring 290 nm, the concentration at the top of the stratosphere is 350
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Epidemiology Paper: HIV
Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V
Human immunodeficiency virus, otherwise known as HIV, is a serious disease that affects the bodies’ immune system. HIV affects the immune cells, specifically called the CD4 cells or T cells. As time passes, these cells are destroyed and soon the body begins to lose its ability to fight off infections and disease. HIV is the virus that could lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Unfortunately, there is no cure for HIV, meaning once infected, you will remain infected for the rest of your life.
The earliest HIV case was known to be in 1959. While it is unknown when exactly it came about, or from where
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, thereby attenuating the inflammatory response . It is thought that the accumulation of cAMP within localized immune cells and lung tissue is important in preventing the pathogenesis of COPD, particularly inflammation .
The fruits of Viticis Fructus has long been used in China and Korea in traditional medicine, particularly for treatment of inflammation of the respiratory system. Recently, an experimental study proved the ability of Viticis Fructus to prevent airway inflammation in an asthma model to be effective . Scientific evidences of its anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory characteristics have supported its potential for the treatment of inflammatory disease [15-17]. It contains
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changes will determine how much improvement takes place.
Attitude: A person's attitude can influence whether or not a situation or emotion is stressful. A person with a negative attitude will often report more stress than would someone with a positive attitude.
Diet: A poor diet puts the body in a state of physical stress and weakens the immune system. As a result, a person can be more likely to get infections. A poor diet can mean making unhealthy food choices, not eating enough, or not eating on a normal schedule.
This form of physical stress also decreases the ability to deal with emotional stress, because not getting the right nutrition may affect the way the brain
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cell carcinoma, (SCC) Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and Malignant Melanoma (MM) are all proven to have been cause by ultraviolet rays from the sun. Malignant Melanoma is becoming more common than any other cancer yearly in the United States. An estimated amount of 76,250 people were diagnosed with Melanoma in 2012. Cataracts of the eyes and a weakened immune system are also proven to be caused by ultraviolet rays.
Humans are not the only living creature affected by the increase of ultraviolet rays.
An environmental issue caused by ozone depletion and increased UV rays is a decrease in the amphibian population. As a result of the amphibian population decreasing, other species that live
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due to its proximity to major South Asian, commodity-exporting countries. Today, Singapore’s favorable tax laws continue to make it a central figure in the South Asian economic landscape. Singapore is a country of roughly 5.5 million people and, due to economy and geography, is a culturally diverse city-state. Primarily Chinese, Indian, and Malaysian peoples comprise Singapore’s citizenry, with western businessmen representing a small sliver of the population and a large portion of the country’s wealth.
Religious diversity within Singapore remains high; an estimated 83% of the population subscribes to a religious belief system. There are five predominant faiths within the country, with no
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True food allergies are rare. The FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) estimates that only 2% of the adult population of the United States is allergic to foods. Further, only eight foods cause 90% of all food allergic reactions. They are milk, egg, wheat, peanut, soy, tree nuts, fish and shellfish (Food Allergy Network). Many reactions to foods are really intolerance (reaction of the metabolism due to a chemical deficiency) rather than allergy (reaction of the immune system). Many infant allergies, which are later outgrown, are thought to be the result of immature immune systems. However, other allergies become stronger as the person ages and inadvertently becomes more exposed
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real world application; and a brief history of coding theory.
According to “Wolframmathworld” (2015) “Coding theory, sometimes called algebraic coding theory, deals with the design of error-correcting codes for the reliable transmission of information across noisy channels. It makes use of classical and modern algebraic techniques involving finite fields, group theory, and polynomial algebra”(). Coding theory has roots in communication filed. Claude Shannon first published the “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” in the Bell System Technical Journal. It was a piece that featured encoding information transmitted by a send. The fundamentals of this work included probability, which he
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keep us running all our life like managing hormone system, immune system, body temperature, skin, muscles, blood and digestive system. There is an old saying
“Early to bed and early to rise
Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise”
This piece of wisdom passed on to us in childhood, do say it all about the importance of sleep but we seem to forget or rather ignore it as we grow older. It becomes an easy choice to cut back on sleep in order to fulfill the needs and demands of modern life. We need to understand that sleep is a necessity, not a luxury. The quality of sleep decides the quality of waking hours including mental and physical activity, productivity, emotional balance, creative
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under control of the nervous and endocrine system. The ovaries produce the hormone oestrogen and the testes produce the hormone testosterone and these hormones look after the sex characteristics, bone growth and sex drive
* Infectious diseases are caused by harmful pathogens
Pathogen | Disease Examples |
Bacteria | Pneumonia, tetanus, tonsillitis |
Viruses | Influenza, HIV, chicken pox |
Fungi | Ringworm, thrush, athlete’s foot |
Protozoa | Malaria |
* The body’s immune system releases anti-bodies to get rid of foreign substances called antigens. After the anti-body attacks the antigen, phagocyte cells get rid of it with assistance of lymphocytes (white blood cells
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Identifying Resources available for Children with Multiple Sclerosis and their Families
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable disorder of the central nervous system. Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease in which the body, through its immune system, launches a defensive attack against its own tissues and can range from relatively benign to somewhat disabling to devastating as contact between the brain and other parts of the body is disrupted. MS affects the ability of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord to communicate with each other effectively.
The initial symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis are often blurred or double vision, poor contrast, eye pain, red-green color
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. Most scientists have found that in moderation, coffee can help prevent some long-term disease later on in life such as Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s and even asthma. (Hensrud, 2010) Most caffeinated products have major sources of anti-oxidants, substances that fight infection and help build the immune system.
However, most citizens in the United States have nearly twice the recommended amount of caffeine every single day, including children. Too much of the drug has been shown to lead to headaches, dizziness, insomnia, and often worsens conditions of depression and anxiety. It is possible in large doses to overdose on the drug as well, and with the rise of energy drinks and caffeine
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distant relatives in a sea of strangers. The genes in
question form part of the major histocompatibility complex, or MHC, and encode various
components of the immune system. These genes are thought to be tightly linked to others that
dictate our natural odour. Research on animals has shown that female mice sniff out males with
different MHCs to their own, prefering them to mates with a similar genetic make up. Women
were also thought to do the same, according to one study in which women sniffed T-shirts worn
for a couple of nights by men.
The same, but different
Now a new study paints a more complicated picture. Martha McClintock, Carole Ober and a team
at the University of Chicago
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7 August 2012
Work Count: 1,227
The Unexposed Dangers of Blood Transfusions
Blood is not considered the “fluid of life” without valid reason. This essential liquid is circulated throughout the human body within veins, capillaries and arteries to our heart, where it is cleaned from contaminants and waste products, then replenished with nutrients and oxygen needed to maintain life. That is the way the human body system nourishes its cells. Blood provides the necessary nutrients to our cells to keep them alive. When this process is compromised by chronic blood loss, trauma, clotting abnormalities (hemophilia, anemia, etc.), the
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may be through sexual intercourse, the sharing of needles and through labour. One the virus is contracted; it weakens the body’s immune system, making the individual susceptible to various infectious diseases and results in the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although many programs in South Africa are put in place that aim at combating this disease, so far they have not been successful in decreasing the number of people dying from this disease, instead the numbers seem to be increasing each year. It is because of the above mentioned problem that I, along with the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) have put together a proposal that will provide an alternative solution to this epidemic
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weather changes from the Summer season to the fall season it normally happens at such a gradual state that it does not have a great impact on people's health, but when you have elements that are constantly changing from very warm to very cold and then back to very warm again. Makes it almost impossible for individuals to remain at a healthily state throughout the winter season. This type of change does not affect anyone positivity; in fact it does the opposite. It causes more colds which lowers the immune system and then makes individuals more likely to catch the flu and possible pneumonia which can lead to hospital and/ or serious care.
The article is focused on how to prepare
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contaminated and improper equipment only poses another risk to spreading HIV among the prison populations.
Many former inmates may find themselves at an increased risk of contracting HIV once they leave prison, and those who are already infected often have difficulty finding sufficient medical and emotional resources on the outside. Finding resources once released is just a few of the challenges that inmates face, HIV progressively damages the body's immune system. This puts you at risk for developing illnesses you wouldn't otherwise get. At this time, doctors don't know of any way to rid the body of HIV. There is no cure. Once you've been infected, you have it for life. Inmates that catch HIV face
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followed daily the body needs dietary supplements to ensure it is receiving all the nutrients necessary to function properly. Vitamin D, A and calcium are necessary for bone health, they both help to keep the bones strong and they help prevent bone loss. Vitamin A also supports vision. Vitamin K helps in the clotting of blood. Vitamin E strengthens the immune system and assists in repairing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Pregnant women may get a recommendation from their doctor to take a folic acid supplement to reduce the risk of birth defects for their child. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies can impair the body’s ability to heal and protect it; a multivitamin for anyone that does not eat a
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blood gas if needed, to see how much oxygen is in the blood. The flu is the most common cause of viral Pneumonia in adults, however it begins to improve from one to three weeks and for middle age people it could take longer.
The Pneumonia virus is known to weaken your immune system. It is a very strong virus and presents in large amounts. This happens when your body cannot filter the germs out of the air you breathe (ALA2014). The people who are at a higher risk for this disease would be smokers, people who are recovering from a previous viral infection, individuals that may have had Strokes, Dementia, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, chronic lung disease, COPD, bronchiectasis, Cystic fibrosis
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Griffith |strains, smooth edge (with polysaccharide capsule) and rough (without). S bacteria killed mice, R did not. Dead S |
| |bacteria did not. Heat killed S. with the capsule did not. R bacteria mixed with heat-killed S bacteria killed mice. |
|Vaccine |Material produced from weakened or killed microorganisms to stimulate an immune response and thereby protect the body |
| |against infection. |
|Transformation |A change in phenotype when bacterial
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cramps, fatigue, nausea and vomiting (Lippincott,2008, p.4).
2.Introduction – Anatomy Of Skin
The skin is an ever-changing and largest organ, covering the entire body that contains many specialized cells and structures. While its main function as a protective barrier it also plays a larger role in maintaining bodies required temperature and active role in immune system in order to protect us from diseases by gathering sensory information from surrounding environment. The skin consists of 3 main layer namely : Epidermis , Dermis and Subcutaneous Tissue with each layer performing specific functions.
Fig 2 : Image of the skin ( Source : Online Biology )
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obstruction. 6 |
|Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System |
|Insulin resistance may prevent efficient conversion of glucose into energy. |
|A decrease in aldosterone and cortisol may affect immune and cardiovascular function6 |
The concept of attention involves both sustained attention (i.e., ability to focus) and selective attention (the ability to distinguish relevant from irrelevant information). Older adults appear to perform tasks
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, for lack of a better
word, persisted and continued to be produced. Lactase
persistence is a genetic mutation, only about ⅓ of the
world’s population is actually lactase persistent (Explore
Short Films 2015). Lactose intolerance is a dominant trait.
This means if one of your parents is lactose intolerant, you
have a good chance of being lactose intolerant too.
It is important to understand the difference between lactose intolerance and a milk
allergy. People with a milk or dairy allergy have much more severe symptoms and this condition
can be lifethreatening. This happens because your immune system thinks the lactose is a foreign
invader and attacks it by
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- Metabolic Role:
o Amino acid metabolism:
R-group interconversion (serine/glycine)
Recall Tryptophan metabolism: Kynurenine Pathway (niacin)
• Allows PLP to effectively facilitate amino acid metabolism
• PLP binds to enzyme
• Link formed between PLP aldehyde group and enzyme amino group (lysine)
• Forms an IMINE group
o Nervous system metabolism:
Synthesis of neurotransmittiers involve PLP-dependent enzymes
o Hormone function:
PLP can bind to steroid hormone receptors
Inhibits binding of hormone – decreases effects
o Glycogen breakdown:
PLP involved in glycogenolysis
Coenzyme for glycogen
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Synthesis and Analysis
Four MAPP Assessments were conducted during phase three of the MAPP process. The four assessments include the Community Themes and Strengths Assessment, the Local Public Health System Assessment, the Community Health Status Assessment, and the Forces of Change Assessment (NACCHO, n.d.). Each Assessment revealed important information about community health in Petersburg, Virginia and must be analyzed to give a complete picture (NACCHO, n.d.).
The Community Themes and Strengths Assessment (CTSA) revealed several important thing about Petersburg. Petersburg, despite being a small city, has a wealth of healthcare