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THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM
Origins of the Juvenile Justice System Juvenile Court Jurisdiction
Deﬁning Delinquency Deﬁning a Juvenile
After completing this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the jurisdiction of the juvenile court. 2. Explain what is meant by delinquency. 3. Explain what is meant by status offenses. 4. Compare the ways in which the various states deﬁne a juvenile. 5. Identify and deﬁne the unique terms used in the juvenile justice system. 6. Outline the three major steps in the juvenile justice process. 7. Describe the ﬁve decision points in the juvenile justice process.
The Language of Juvenile Justice
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CheckPoint: Juvenile Court Process
The first encounter a youth has with the juvenile justice system is usually his or her arrest by a law enforcement official. Other ways that youth enter the system include "referrals" by parents and schools, delinquency victims, and probation officers. A decision is usually made after arrest as to whether a youth should be detained and charged, released, or transferred into another youth welfare program. When a juvenile court case reaches the juvenile probation department, an intake officer will decide whether to dismiss it, handle it informally, or hear it formally. To make this decision the officer reviews the facts surrounding the case to decide if
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The terms juvenile and delinquency have particular meanings in state and federal law. For instance, across different countries, a juvenile is any person under the age of 17 or 18 years, and delinquency refers to acts committed by a juvenile that can be considered a crime if committed by an adult. Moreover, delinquency can also refer to actions that are illegal solely because of the age of the offender. Various studies have revealed that there exist four pillars in a child’s life, which can help in scrutinizing, understanding, and addressing the issue of “child and youth crime”. These pillars include family, peers, school, and the community. In most
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due process rights are the same.
In 2008 16% of all violent crime was by juvenile offenders. This includes murder, forcible rape, assault and aggravated assault. In California, Florida and Texas, juveniles over the age of 14 who have committed the more serious crimes are tried as adults (Angela Atkinson, eHow Contributor).
In the United States, a juvenile delinquent is a person who has not yet reached the age of majority, and whose behavior has been labeled delinquent by a court. The specific requirements vary from state to state. In the United States, the federal government enacted legislation to unify the handling of juvenile delinquents, the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Act of
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Running head: Juvenile Reentry
Making an Effective Transition
PSF 5372 – History of the Juvenile Criminal Justice System
This paper explores the transformation of the Juvenile Justice System over the past century and how it impacts today’s youth. Juvenile delinquency has become a well-known phenomenon as youth have taken experimentation and violence to a new level. More adolescents are being diagnosed with medical disorders while many find themselves not having the means to access the proper treatment. Family and moral standards are not as they were a century ago and the economic strain of today
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ineffective in our efforts our youth struggle, suffer, and can fall into a sense of hopelessness. Mental health is a highly discussed stigma in society today and for young teens the task of managing this emotional, social, and psychological challenges at such a young age can have a direct correlation to violent and destructive behavior. Instead of our states sentencing our juvenile offenders to further abuse and victimization in an adult correctional facility we should be attacking the crisis which creates juvenile delinquency head on.
The question then asked is why am I against juveniles being tried as adults. Setting personal feelings and inclinations aside, there are several concrete
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When a French social worker was recently asked what he considered the most valuable attitude in working with juvenile delinquents, he replied: ‘The ability to accept failure-and still go right ahead.’ W e should not delude ourselves that there are any short, swift or easy solutions. Delinquent behaviour is not a twenty-four hour malady that affects a child as a virus does. The preceding chapter has pointed out how complex, and how deeply set, some of the motivations towards juvenile delinquency can be. Since a child does not become delinquent on the spur of the moment but as the result of a long and intricate series of reactions, any realistic plan to help that child will not be an easy one
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negative effects for a child who is brought up in a broken home especially when they are entrant to the age of a juvenile. There are several physical and mental changes when a child goes through his stage of teens is the possible analyzed reason. There is a transformation from teens to adults and their mentors become there parents who diversify their efforts to the right path. Over the years a constant delinquency has been witnessed through Colleen. The classic delinquent action at this age is running away from home. Poverty, delinquency, passing away of the parents, abusive home, feeblemindedness, and poverty are several reasons why a child may run away from home (Brown, 1992). And when these
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Associates. (1992). Communities that care: Action for drug abuse prevention. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (1997). Preventing drug use among children and adolescents: A research-based guide. Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov 2011. <www.nida.nih.gov/>.
"Effect of Substance Abuse on Children." DARA: Drug and Alcohol Rehab Asia. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov 2011. <http://alcoholrehab.com/?s=substance abuse>.
"Juvenile Delinquency and Substance Abuse ." National Criminal Justice Reference Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov 2011. <https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/jjbul9712-1/substan.html>.
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influences juvenile delinquency. Juveniles are more likely to become juvenile delinquents if there is little structure provided for them in their families. Fatherless homes attributes to juvenile delinquents, which is attributed to drug trafficking or other illegal activities (Kamla-Raj,2010). This is not the case for every child who become juvenile delinquent, but in some cases. This is especially at a high rate in a low-income African-American community.
With fathers out of the picture, there remains a gigantic void that provoke young men to seek the love and acceptance of older males usually involved in criminal activities. In some cases, these young men are vulnerable and easily tempted by
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continue this feeling.
During the 1960’s it was a time of rebellion, with music, dancing, the hippie movement, free love, flower power, and the introduction to drugs to get high such as marijuana, glue sniffing, LSD and alcohol. Most of the youth at that time was into smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol and some did smoke marijuana. This was the leap from child to adult behavior or some would call juvenile delinquency. Each time a beer touched the lips it was breaking the law and leading to more risky behaviors.
By the time the junior year 1968-1969 rolled around, it was drinking most every night and stayed sober on game day or night until after the games. Then win or lose it was
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Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Youth Gang Services has studied youth gang involvement and delinquency in cities and rural areas since the rapid increase after the 1980’s
Persons ages 12-24 years face the highest risk of nonfatal violent victimization of any portion of society. Arrest rates for homicide, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault peak among adolescents and young adults.
Homicide is the second leading cause of death for all Americans ages 15-34 years.
The risk factors of young gangs and delinquency include 5 main areas
Individual and Family Demographics, Personal Attributes, Peer Groups, Schools, and Community.
Individual and family demographics have shown
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families help women cope with incarceration?
SOC 305 Week 3 Quiz (Ash)
For more course tutorials visit
1. Question : Data on juvenile crime indicates ____________.
2. Question : Why is the data presented by the author not necessarily an accurate reflection of who actually commits delinquency?
3. Question : Statistics suggest that, in the United States, violent crime is __________ and property crime is __________.
4. Question : In 2010, the number of American juveniles between the ages of 0 and 17 in the general population, listed by race from most to least, was ____________.
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followed by a dramatic decline. It started rising again in the 1960's gradually, but even more quickly in the 1970's. From the 1980's till now the rate of increase in divorce has fluctuated. It is predicted that 40-50 percent of marriages will end in divorce if this trend continues.
Divorce would not be thought of as such a terrible thing, if negative aspects weren’t connected to it. Divorce greatly increases the chances that children of divorced families will be more likely to experience psychological problems, juvenile delinquency, suicide, and teen motherhood. These problems come to light during and after the divorce process, more than from the actual conflict during the marriage. The
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behavior and the formation and joining of criminal organizations. A person who socializes with a group or individuals who have a criminal history or people who are in organized crime or gangs are at a very high-risk of conforming to the norms of that scrupulous social sub-group. A prime example of this is juvenile delinquency in America. A peer pressure with teens comes from all angles, teens become involved in delinquent criminal behavior as a result of peer pressure. Many juveniles have surrcome to the peer pressure, end up dropping out of school, joining criminal organizations, or a street gangs, this peer pressure can also led to experimenting with illegal drugs alcohol, which has led
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youth to be imprisoned along with adults, make juvenile records available to colleges that the youth might apply to later in life, provide funds for prison construction, and give federal prosecutors sole discretion to decide whether those youth charged with offences would be tried as adults or as youth. They found that the majority of the American public (67%) disagreed with the proposal that would allow youth to be housed in adult jails on arrest. This finding was similar to that obtained in a survey of 548 American police chiefs by Johnson et al. (1997), in which 83% of them agreed with the view that the focus for youth should be rehabilitation and the avoidance of placing youth with adult
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.: Center for Law and Social Policy, Oct, 1999.
Snyder, H., and Sickmund, M. (1999). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs.
Todd, C. and Ashton, A., (March 2001)."Three Perspectives on Child Care Public Policy," University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, http://www.accs.uiuc.edu.
Unpublished data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (1999) Marital and Family Characteristics of the Labor Force from the March 1999 Current Population Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor.
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learn to be respectful to each other and to communicate effectively, as well as teaching values such as integrity, caring about others and moderation lower divorce rates and juvenile delinquency (Jehovah’s Witness Official Media Website, 2009). Despite the good they do, Jehovah’s Witnesses have opposition because of their beliefs and practices. There have been Supreme Court cases worldwide related to the right to practice their religion, displays of patriotism, and military service. Their religious activities have even been banned currently in countries like China, Vietnam, and some Islamic states.
The religious movement known today as Jehovah’s Witnesses began as a small group with
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between gangs, but the crimes generally associated with gangs include vandalism, robbery, drug-trafficking, assault, arson, and murder. There are many reasons why teenagers may join gangs. The root causes of violent gang formation are poverty, stressed families, unemployment, under-employment, under-education, racism, and the breakdown of sociocultural institutions. While it is true that gang violence has been decreasing, it still exists. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in the Department of Justice offers a National Youth Gang Survey. Some of the results from this survey include the following gang statistics:
* 100% of cities with a population of more than
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potential research subjects, eg truants, schools, truancy officers, parents (power relations and attitudes to authority/school; language skills; low academic ability; class, ethnicity and gender; home conditions; schools’ public image/funding). • The research contexts and settings, eg government policies, out of school settings, welfare/control agencies. • The sensitivity of researching truancy, eg associations with delinquency; researchers’ ‘guilty knowledge’; consequences for pupils, parents, schools, government (eg school reputation; juvenile delinquency).
Strengths and limitations, as applied to the particular issue in education, may include: reliability
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development of males may be seen as more adversely affected by living in one parent homes than that of females from similar circumstances” (p. 271).
Debell (2008) reported evidence showing a correlation between absence of a father and juvenile delinquency. He also showed evidence that boys with absent fathers have a harder time forming peer relationships and long lasting heterosexual relationships when compared to boys raised in a father present home.
2- Children should be raised in two parent families because they both play an
important role in their lives. Children need love from both parents in order to grow into stable emotional adults. Each parent has different characteristics
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delinquency charges against the student in Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court. T.L.O. contended that the search of her purse violated her Fourth Amendment Rights. The Court concluded that Mr. Choplick’s search was reasonable and did not violate any rights and the student was sentenced to a year’s probation. (Casetext, 2015)
The issue presented in this case is whether or not the student’s Fourth Amendment rights had been violated. In the decision, the Court reasoned that the student’s rights were not violated and that school officials act as agents of the state when the search was conducted. School officials maintain a right to search and seize if they suspect a school rule has been
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Throughout all texts, the personality and development of the characters is an art created by the author. How the reader perceives the characters plays a large role in the readers understanding and connection to the text. In Pride and Prejudice Jane Austen’s development of many characters draws certain emotions from the reader. The personalities of many characters in Pride and Prejudice become infuriating and bothersome as the novel progresses. Austen’s creation of ridiculous and exaggerated characters such as Mrs. Bennet, Mr. Collins, Miss Bingley, and Lady Catherine create negative reader bias towards the characters and their actions in the novel.
The ridiculous behavior of Mrs. Bennet is
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Role of Sports in Society
A. Description of the issue
The role of sport in society has been debated for many decades. Sport is a part of society as both an educational fixture and an entertainment enterprise. Sport forms part of human and social development; it can contribute to social cohesion, tolerance and integration and is an effective channel for physical and socio-economic development. As a universal language, sport can be a powerful medium for social and economic change: it can be utilized to bridge cultural gaps, resolve conflict and educate people in ways that very few activities can. The goal of the Sports Council is to examine the proposition that sport can be a powerful agent
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Business globalisation is forming new demands for individuals, organisations and countries to work together in many different ways. A team that is multi-cultural has the capability to bring individuals together with an extensive range of ideas and experiences. In the recent years, there has been a tendency of multi-cultural teams becoming very common. This is because cross border mobility has become much easier and the number of people travelling from one nation to another has grown significantly (Aswathppa, 2010). This has also resulted in the intermarrying of people from different ethnic backgrounds and cultures. Although having multicultural
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Database-management system (DBMS) is a collection of interrelated data and a
set of programs to access those data. The collection of data, usually referred to as the database, contains information relevant to an enterprise. The primary goal of a DBMS is to provide a way to store and retrieve database information that is both convenient and efficient.
Database systems are designed to manage large bodies of information. Management of data involves both defining structures for storage of information and providing mechanisms for the manipulation of information. In addition, the database system must ensure the safety of the information stored, despite system
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Over the Years…
Work with Jason/Scott/Phil’s Customers
Enter customer orders
Enter Purchase orders
Send order acknowledgements
Enter new customer info into FACTS
Enter new vendors info into FACTS
**Collect Customer Credit Info
Track release information for Logistics
Process incoming check
Answer phones/ Direct calls
Request/Send Certificates of Insurance
**Gather Vendor Information
Open/ Sort Mail
Track and order office supplies & other needs
Set up Quick Delivery
Set up Fed Ex Deliveries
Work closely w/ Jason/Scott/Phil (Mike J’s
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Third Party Relationship Party
Vendor/third party relationships are an important part of ___FCU’s core purpose. It is necessary and prudent that ___FCU establish and manage these types of relationships in order to strategically provide services and products we could not provide on our own. This policy will provide reasonable assurance that management is appropriately managing contracted critical vendor relationships for a maximum benefit with the least amount of risk.
Senior management must ensure that all risks have been taken into consideration along with the benefits to the CU and its members, and that the risks and returns are acceptable. Careful consideration must be given to
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When companies begin they develop a business plan that details what they intend to specialize in. For some, once they have reached a goal in one market they make decisions to venture out into other markets. In the world of business, that venturing out is called diversifying the company. According to Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary, to diversify is “to increase the variety of the products of; or to engage in varied operations.” (Merriam-Webster, 2012) In a business, when you produce a variety of goods or invest in different markets it is a strategy that provides a back-up in the event that one good or investment goes south. Diversification
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What is Honor?
My understanding of the term honor.
Honor is defined as a source of credit or distinction, and is associated with reverence, dignity, reputation, good name and a good sense of what is morally correct. The key part to honor is having respect for others and for you; the two must act together because without both, there is nothing. I strongly believe that reputation is hard to gain and easily lost. Think about this, every day thousands of planes fly somewhere and there is never any news about a successful landing, but if any of those flights crash, it is all over the news. This fact tells me that in order to keep one’s honor, one must maintain a set standard of excellence. It
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Fall Semester 2011
In the movie The Missing a woman named Maggie and her two daughters Lilly and Dot live on a plot of land, that they farm in New Mexico in 1885. Maggie is a doctor and lives with her boyfriend who helps run the farm. A stranger visits to seek treatment for a wound and it is Maggie’s estranged father. Her father left her family when she was young to be with the Indians. Maggie does not like her father and eventually makes him leave. Her eldest daughter Lilly, Dot and Maggie’s boyfriend head out on a trip the next day with the cattle. The following morning Maggie is alarmed when they do not return and sets out to find them. She discovers that her
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Understanding the Dilemma
Ethical Decision Making
Understanding ethics and utilizing ethical business practices are key to the success in modern business. Traditional business organizations must take into consideration many more aspects of business today, than in the past when the focus was primarily on profits and making money for the shareholders. These ethical principles also influence non-profit and government organizations as well, taking into account the same ethical considerations that for profit organizations deal with. The modern concept of ethical organizations takes into account many issues, some of which include:
• corporate social responsibility
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Title of Paper
(Doctoral students must include the
following on the title page instead:
title, author’s name, and institution name)
Title of Paper
The U.S Economic forecast is very helpful because it helps to provide the world’s leading organizations with knowledge it needs. The source is useful because there is information that is provided from businesses all over the world as far as economics and corporate leadership. Also the the website provides critical information and challenges that the world faces including annual reports, value creation, high performing organizations and human capital. The source gives helpful
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Technology is the development over time of systematic techniques for making and doing things (Britannica Encyclopedia, 2001). According to the oxford dictionary; education is the process of training a person’s mind so that they can acquire knowledge. The combination of education and technology has been considered the main key to human progress. Education feeds technology, which in turn forms the basis for education (Fodje, 2006). The acquiring of knowledge allowed man to develop technological aid to make life easier. To date this same technology has impacted on the education industry in Jamaica.
Technology has made a mark on Jamaica over the years; it is the fuel that drives Jamaica’s
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There’s No Room: A look at public schools’ design for science and evolution
PHI103: Informal Logic (GSK1216H)
Instructor Micheal Pelt
May 21, 2012
The 1987 Supreme Court ruling on the case of Edward v Aguillard, struck down a Louisiana Law requiring “balanced treatment” between “creation science” and evolution. The Supreme Court found “creation science” to be unconstitutional, a statute that forbade teaching evolution unless “creation science” was also taught. Edward v Aguillard made it clear you cannot teach creation science alongside evolution (Brown, Feb2012). This argument of if evolution should be taught in public schools has waged on for decades, and as long
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1. (35 points) The United States Post Office provides an array of services which according to recent reports to Congress has resulted in billions in annual losses. A special committee has identified potential services that could be reduced or eliminated as follows:
a. Reduce days of delivery from six to five days i.e. eliminate Saturday delivery for residential and commercial customers
b. Eliminate special delivery services such as express mail and certified mail
c. Change the pricing structure for bulk (aka junk mail) to discourage use and encourage digital distribution to save costs on transportation, storage and labor
d. Consider eliminating other services such as passport and Post
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One Small Act by Jennifer Arnold
A wise man once said ‘’ Action and reaction, ebb and flow, trial and error, change - this is the rhythm of living. Out of our over-confidence, fear; out of our fear, clearer vision, and fresh hope. And out of hope, progress.’’ It tells the story of Chris Mburu, a child from Kenya, and how his life was changed by a woman named Hilde Beck. Hilde Beck is an 87 year old survivor of the holocaust her parents were killed in concentration camps and she left Germany to Sweden to have a better life. She became a teacher only making a little over minimum wage but yet still gave some money out of her own pockets to sponsor a child and that child’s name was Chris
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The Laundery industry has very few reputable cleaners that operative with similar services and very few satisfied customers. The fact that very few laudry services pick up laudery at homes, and has a self service laudery mat, notes that the industry has great potential for a profitable growing business which can expand and diversify the services.
.Although this service is innovative , Lynn’s Clean & Press has to consider the fact that there will be competition ,business imitators and rivals that will try to gain the customers market share in future. As more completion increases Lynn’s Clean & Press has to further innovate and distinguish/differentiate
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When people hear the term capital budgeting, they usually focus on the budgeting part of the term rather than the capital portion. Actually, capital is the more important aspect in that it lets us know that we are evaluating a larger expenditure that will be capitalized -- in other words, depreciated over time. Remember, a capital expenditure can be many things -- a large copying machine, an automated assembly line, a building, or the ultimate in capital budgeting -- the acquisition of another entity. What is totally cool about capital budgeting is it allows you to analyze one or more projects so that you can intelligently and strategically make a decision as to which
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Costco member and shareholder
Evaluating Costco’s financial performance
Sustainable growth model
$1.6 trillion in retail and wholesale trade (2001)
15% of GDP (1960)
16% of GDP (2001)
Customer service premium
Sears, Roebuck, & Company
First retail store opened in 1925
$41 billion in sales (2001)
Wal-Mart / SAM’S Club
First SAM’S Club opened in 1983
$218 billion in sales
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I read the article Neglecting neglect: some thoughts about children who have lacked good input, and are ‘undrawn’ and ‘unenjoyed’. This article focuses on children that were emotionally neglected early on in their lives. The probability of these children having long-term effects of this neglect is very high if not noticed by professionals or someone who is willing to take the time to try and help them.
In one case, the child was left alone in the crib most of the time and not given much physical input from the people around her. This made it difficult for her to show emotions whether positive or negative. She was considered a good child because she never asked for any help or
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SJWEH Suppl 2008;(4):3–4
Every workplace deserves a good indoor environment
Problems with the quality of the indoor environment have become a new and demanding challenge to occupational health and safety. Modern workplaces resembling office environments that do not have any hazardous exposures originating from work processes can face other problems related to the indoor environment, for example, problems related to substances that are a part of building materials and occur in ventilation. People in Western societies spend more than 90% of their time indoors. Therefore, the quality of indoor environments plays a significant role in their life. Bad indoor air and environments are
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Keisha N. Anderson ii
“Develop an organizational Culture at work”
Professor: Dr. Dwight Snowden
June 12, 2012
Keisha N. Anderson 1
Motivating a team of people can be difficult; however learning about each individual and
What motivates them is important. I have found in my own experience with motivating others
You have to really find out what’s important to them, as far as certain aspects in their lives
Such as family and sometimes their age. I have found that younger individuals aren’t really
Motivated by cash, they like the flexibility of coming to work when they want to so instead of
Setting a set time like 8am I would say to
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Bag It Incorporated: Zip N Seal Bag
Dr. Brian J. McCue
Marketing Management 500
November 14, 2011
Determine and discuss a pricing strategy (Penetration or Skimming).
When deciding between skimming and penetration for a pricing strategy, Bag It, Incorporated considers the relationships that have already been formed with its current clientele. Skimming would allow Bag It, Incorporated to price our Zip N Seal bag at a higher price than the competition. This may allow us to gain a higher profit, but in return gain low sales volume. Bag It Incorporated will choose to use a penetration pricing strategy. This type of strategy is a price strategy that will allow Bag It
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“Many soldiers are led to faulty ideas of war by knowing too much about too little” (1944). “Americans love a winner and will not tolerate a loser. Americans play to win all the time. I wouldn’t give a hoot in Hell for a man who lost and laughed. That’s why Americans have never lost and will never lose a war. Because the very thought of losing is hateful to Americans. Now an army is a team. It lives, eats, sleeps and fights as a team. This individuality stuff is a bunch of crap. The Bilious bastards who wrote that stuff about individuality for the Saturday Evening Post, don’t know anything more about real battle than they do about fornicating” (1944). Part-time Warriors
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It's really no wonder that there is an obesity epidemic in America. Food is everywhere we look; sitting along the roadsides, calling at you in bright colors from grocery store shelves, glowing in vending machines down the hallway. There is no way to escape the never ending advertisements from fast food restaurants. This is whereobesity begins; consuming more food portions than your body needs. Americans are also overweight due to the lack of exercise; there is more time spent on the couch sitting in front of the television, than there is in the gym. Just an hour each day could better your health. Obesity ranks as the second-leading cause of preventable deaths in America, following smoking by
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Companies need an approach to CRM that marketers — and customers — can embrace. Embraceable CRM starts with a simple premise: The most important part of the database isn’t the base; it’s the data. To gain the information necessary to embrace the customer, relationship programs must be based on two principles:
* First, they cannot wait until the first purchase is consummated to begin to understand consumer interests, concerns, desires, and habits. The key to unlocking value is to recognize that different customers follow different purchase paths. Effective CRM systems must dive deep into the purchase decision before the purchase is made. Call this purchase-cycle intimacy.
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How the Ingredients Found In Beer are Beneficial to Our Health
Drinking beer for some people who likes to go to the party or just relaxing their body is a habit. However, some people think beer is the alcohol drink that effects bad habit, cause be hangover, and has high risks for some diseases. Besides that, some people consider that consuming beer intake too much can damage the body’s digestive system, kidney, and fetuses of pregnant women. Apparently that drinking beer has positive effects to our health as long as normally consumption though consuming of beer has the bad effects too such as bad habit, hangovers, and addiction. However, several study says that benefits of beer consumption