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There are innumerable definitions of irony, but all of them have in common the following notions:
* the opposition of the word’s contextual meaning to its general meaning
* mockery as the major goal of irony
* (from Ancient Greek εἰρωνεία (eirōneía) meaning “dissimulation, feigned ignorance”) a trope based on direct opposition of the meaning to the sense. (J.M. Skrebnev)
* a stylistic device in which the contextual evaluative meaning of a word is directly opposite to its dictionary meaning. (V.A. Kuharenko)
* a way to express mockery by means of using the word in the meaning that is directly opposite to its principal meaning. (I.V
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Canada’s Homefront During WW1
In August 1914, Britain declared war on Germany, which meant that Canada was going to war as well. Canada’s young men were going to war to serve their country as well as demonstrating their patriotic duty to Britain as they left behind their loved ones on the Canadian homefront. The First World War had a profound impact on life in Canada during the war. As our Canadian soldiers faced conflicts and huge challenges on foreign battlefields, there were many changes coming for those left behind on the Canadian homefront as they faced many social challenges and a shift in life, as they knew it. During WW1, the Canadian homefront saw a great transformation
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A comparison without the use of ‘like’ or ‘as’. Example: “He’s a pig” is a metaphor
Simile - figure of speech involving a comparison between unlike things using like, as, or as though.
i.e. She floated in like a cloud.
Attributing human or other animate characteristics to an inanimate object.
Example: Clouds cry.
Motif - any element, subject, idea or concept that is constantly present through the entire body of literature
Irony. Conveys the opposite of what is meant or what would be expected.
Examples: Saying “You’re so graceful!” to someone who has just tripped is verbal irony. A lifeguard
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The Story of an Hour
In “The Story of An Hour” we are opened up to Mrs.Mallard’s sister,Josephine preparing
to break the news of Brently Mallard’s alleged death.We are told in the very first few lines that
Mrs.Mallard has had heart trouble in the past and great care has been taken to break the news to
her.Most of the story takes place in the Mallard’s home,mainly in Louise’s bedroom.The setting
takes place there because right after the news of Brently’s death Mrs.Mallard goes to her room to
In the story Irony is shown when Louise reacts to the new’s of Brently’s death.As a
reader you expect her
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Exploring the Use Literary Techniques in Bossypants
To create a striking and memorable story, authors often use literary devices to bring a text to life. Literary devices help eloquently express one’s feelings while also playing to the reader’s emotions. In Tina Fey’s Bossypants, several techniques applied help successfully create a notable work of literature. Her use of literary devices proves to be effective as shown through the irony, humour and flashbacks.
Irony is often used by authors to add an element of humour to a simple narrative; Tina Fey’s use of verbal irony helps effectively convey her story. An example of this is when she says: “…I took a personal inventory of all my
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, intelligent, sound and serious. He appears to be a brute and a monster for proposing something evil and immoral very calmly as if it is normal to consume the flesh of another human being.
What makes his proposal to be even more depraved is that he proposes to eat the babies.
Generally, irony makes visible a contrast between appearance and reality.
It exposes and underscores a contrast between
what is and what seems to be
what is and what ought to be
what is and what one wishes to be
what is and what one expects to be
Types of Irony
the most common form. people say the opposite of what they mean.
Two basic forms: understatement and overstatement
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District 9 VS Once Upon a Time
District 9 is a sci-fi film inspired by historical events that took place in South Africa during the apartheid era. “Once Upon A Time” is a short story that shows how apartheid brought people mistrust and a need to stereotype everyone in an effort to supposedly protect themselves. District 9 critiques the apartheid through the manipulation of sci-fi conventions and visual codes whereas “Once Upon A Time” manipulates the conventions of a narrative, fairytale and irony.
Both texts critique apartheid. District 9 strongly comments on the apartheid that was occurring in Johannesburg at the time and represents this through
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meaning is one of irony. From the very title - Dulce et Decorum Est - the poet is saying how sweet and honourable it is, although this is only part of the well-known phrase. He closes his poem with the complete phrase - Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori - how sweet and honourable it is to die for one’s country, and yet between the title and the closing lines he depicts a story which is, ironically, anything but sweet and glorious.
(b) In no more than two sentences, explain how the context helped you to understand the poem.
Owen begins his poem without any introduction to his subject - Bent double, like old beggars under sacks - he could be describing anything here and one wouldn’t
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“blood” of Christ - causing me to question the nature of who or what my religion worships.
Finally, during the discussion about eighteenth century Paris, I examined my own situation as an expatriate living in Nairobi. I was able to parallel the irony Süskind highlights concerning the fragility of Parisian aristocratic society with the privileged existence I lead. Süskind implies such stark social disparity in a society is immoral, that the circumstance of which I am a part is full of blatant hypocrisies. Because Süskind focuses the novel on the underbelly of society instead of the aristocracy and uses literary realism to reject romantic subjectivism and offer more truthful depictions, my
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The Story Of The Hour, by Kate Chopin, is about woman who struggles with oppression brought on by her husband and her secret desire for freedom. Mrs. Mallard doesn’t know how truly unhappy she is until she is told that he has died in train accident. The story is limited to a third-person point of view, but is not short on drama thanks to the structure and style of Chopin’s writing. Her theme of oppression is reveled by the irony of the story, in which she discovers a sense of freedom quickly after her husbands death. Chopin uses symbolism to emphasis this newly found feeling. The main character Mrs. Louise Mallard is a very easy to relate to.
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Newarthill in North Lanarkshire.
After attending Glasgow School of Art, she lectured in fine art for eight years before becoming a professional writer. She is one of Scotland's most popular dramatists. Her plays include Blood and Ice, Mary Queen of Scots Got Her Head Chopped Off (1987).Her adaptation of Euripides' Medea won the Saltire Society Scottish Book of the Year Award in 2001.
Along with a sense of humour that is filled with surprise and irony, her work as a whole is as thought-provoking as it is entertaining. This entertainment can be portrayed in her poem "Revelation" which compares an enraged bull to a demonic figure.
Heaney explains a change in his attitude to the natural
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i.e. light heartedly insulting Benedick. However by the end of the play she gives into this act but still manages to keep her guard and independence strong, due to the fact she is afraid of love and cowers away from the idea of vulnerability in a relationship. A quote to back this up would be when Beatrice says to Benedick, “I would not deny you; but, by this good day, I yield upon great persuasion”. Shakespeare uses dramatic irony in this quote as at the start of the play she refused to ever love and was a closed person whereas now she has ended up admitting her love to Benedick and got married. Therefore showing how it links to comedy. However she does not struggle with love as much as
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improving health through broader
environmental and social action.
The modern public health enterprise in the United
States owes much to Lillian Wald, who established
public health nursing in the US and practiced in
Manhattan’s lower east side beginning in the 1890s.
She and her nurse colleagues recognized first-hand
the limitations of treating illness and offering
health education to people who were living in
crowded tenements. Wald noted the irony when
she wrote, “Impressing upon the poor the latest
findings of science without simultaneously urging
reform in housing, child protection, and wages is
cruelly sardonic on the part of the nurse.”
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Climax sound effects
Resolution or denouement important props
Use of dramatic devices: irony, foreshadowing, suspense, surprises
Language: realistic, heroic, archaic, poetic, incantatory, orghast
Setting: period of style
scene changes or changes within single set as play progresses
essential scenic elements
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, burdened by the satchel of
self-condemnation. I believe Durang portrayed these characters in order to show that life is not
always better on the other side of the fence. Sometimes you just have to find happiness in your
own backyard. Jim and Marsha had something that Wanda could only dream of having. The
irony is that Wanda was causing her own life to be unhappy, seeking the happiness Jim and
Marsha never found.
Durang, Christopher. “ Wanda’s Visit” . The Bedford Introduction to Literature. Ed
Michael Meyer. 9th ed. Boston; Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2011. 1785-1800. Print
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Is Advertising Ethical?
April 1, 2012
Joseph “Chip” Gibson
MBA 515 Learning Unit 10
Dr. Gordon Russell
Ethics in advertising to most sounds like the definition for irony. However, the practice of truthful advertising is commonplace in today’s society. Advertisers are held accountable for the messages they produce. So are the manufacturers, whom are held accountable for their products meeting the standards set forth by the advertisement. For the most part this is a self-regulated practice. Once an advertised product is called out for not living up to expectation, recovery of reputation and overall positive brand imaging are rarely had. The added fear of civil lawsuits
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on the ranch. It could also be referring to how during the great depression women were oppressed and treated less equally. Steinbeck may have portrayed women in this light to allow the reader to recognize the inferior role of women at that time. The lack of name demotes Curley's wife to insignificant status. In chapter four she joins Crooks, Lennie and Candy whilst on one of her ‘looking for Curley’ routines, where she says, 'They left all the weak ones here' alluding to the three men, all 'weak' in their respective ways. However there is a sense of irony because she is not even considered a real person but a possession. Therefore this comment is ironic because she seems to think of herself
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before, her kitchen was not good enough and nothing made sense: “she thought that for the first time in her life that nothing was hers, that belonged to her, but just a pounding, living thing inside this body that was not really hers either” (135). It was too late, as she got up, opened the door and followed Arnold into the big vast land she never knew existed. He was able to manipulate her and she knew after that day she would never see her family again. They were never there to save her, make her feel important or loved enough to ever ask her “Where are you going, Where have you been?”
In conclusion, the author’s use of situational irony in the title from the beginning forces the
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even mislead entirely. Euphemisms are used for dissimulation, as alternatives to unpleasant topics (especially death), and to mask profanity.
Departed instead of died.
Hyperbole is the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. It may be used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is not meant to be taken literally.
I am so hungry I could eat a horse.
Irony is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or situation in which there is an incongruity between the literal and the implied meaning.
A man who is a traffic cop gets his license suspended for unpaid parking tickets.
Litotes is a figure of speech in
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Kiahini T. Bates
March 22, 2010
Analytical essay on “The Lottery”
The idea of winning a lottery is associated with luck, happiness and anticipation of good things. In Shirley Jackson’s story, “The Lottery, this is not the case. The irony of the story is that the winner of the lottery gets stoned to death by everyone else In the town. The world today prides itself in being a fair and just society, but are we really that much different from the primitive and barbaric customs from the townspeople in “The Lottery”? “The Lottery” examines society’s changing traditions, or lack thereof. By using the literary techniques of symbolization, setting and
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police office is messy, chaotic and cluttered emphasizing that it is a threatening world, juxtaposing to the peaceful community of the Amish. The world of the police station is depicted through Samuels’s eyes and so the camera is held at his height, which changes the viewers’ perspective of the office. The music used during the moment of recognition makes the scene more theatrical in its intensity as does cinematography. A continuous take is used throughout the scene that heightens the tension. Corruption of the police force is demonstrated here by the irony that McPhee has received many honors for past achievements in the police force yet he himself is corrupt as he is part of a criminal organization.
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irony in the fact that this most improbable expectation is realised.” (Moore)
Mr. Moore touches on how a mother can be influential in regards to their daughters marrying and these women really seem to know no other. The women have been brought up in an environment that dictates finding and competing for the right man when there is one available. Some of the women hope to find love while in search of a husband but not all is credited for this being a priority. Jane, and possibly her sister, is the only woman that would not marry if she did not fall in love but still a man with riches was high on her qualities for a husband.
There is substantial evidence in the writings of Jane Austen’s book
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mountain! It was faster than a cheetah! It was dumber than a rock!” This figure of speech makes things seem much bigger than they really were by using grandiose depictions of everyday things. Hyperbole is often seen as an exaggeration that adds a bit of humor to a story.
This figure of speech tries to use a word in a literal sense that debunks what has just been said. “Gentlemen, you can’t fight in here! This is the War Room!” from Dr. Strangelove is a great example. It is often used to poke fun at a situation that everyone else sees as a very serious matter.
The use of metaphor compares two things that
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rape against Assange. Following that, Wikileaks has been publishing information from cables sent from US embassies around some 250 countries around the world. The reaction of the US has been to come down on Assange like a ton of bricks. Just imagine if anything remotely similar had happened in Iran or China, or Zimbabwe: the US and the western countries would have awarded the whistleblower the Nobel Price. The irony of all this is that the western countries, who are chasing Assange for embarrassing the US, were awarding the Nobel Price to a Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo, who has been imprisoned in China for inciting subversion.
In Malaysia, we have a unique situation of
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figure out that Mrs. Wright did murder her husband they take it upon themselves and pass judgment on her. This is a huge step in society for these two women because normally they were not allowed to be on a jury. Also the irony of the story of how a little women killed a man is also hidden from view. Men were suppose to be the stronger sex however this little women killed her husband and got away with it because of the help from her fellow women.
G. Jennifer “Analysis of A Jury of Her Peers by Susan Glaspell” www.associatedcontent.com/article/212794/analysis_of_a_jury_of_her_peers_.
30, April 2007
Glaspell, Susan “A Jury of Her Peers” The Norton introduction to Literature(1973):
McMasters, James “ A Jury of Her Peers: A Character Analysis”
www.freeessays.cc/db/18/edo90.shtml. 17, October 2007
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give me a strange look and say “You’re not Indian.” This is when I felt that I am an American because I am different from the people in India. Staying in India for four years I learned how to read and write Hindi and Punjabi. During the first semester of my seventh grade I moved back to America. The irony was that even though I am a citizen of the United States I now felt that this was a foreign country, because I adjusted to the customs of the Indian culture. At first it was difficult adapting to life in America because it was different from at that time a third world country. When my classmates asked me “Where are you from?” and I used to answer, “I am from America” and they also used to
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Art is redemptive. Even in modern times, when artistic expression seems to have moved away from consumption, or as it is known today as tuberculosis, to other causes of human suffering. The dramatic irony occasionally sneaks backstage to comment on the empty theater of consumption. In 1967, Vivian Leigh, the acclaimed actress in such roles as Anna Karenina and Scarlet O’Hara, died of tuberculosis. Starring at the time in a long-running play, Leigh began to experience a cough, then a fever. Within a few months, she was dead. The accidental irony was pure “theater.” The play was Chekhov’s Ivanov. Leigh, a wealthy woman dying of tuberculosis, was starring in a play about a
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attack that coming doctors call “the joy that kills.” Here we observe both irony and oxymoron because it is not an actual joy to feel freedom and then to be seized again.
The story under analysis is told in the 3rd person singular and the narration is retrospective. The author describes the inner world of the main character however she is not present straightly in the story. She observes it somewhat from outside. The narration is not linear and it is interrupted by flash-backs “And yet she had loved him – sometimes. Often she had not. ” and flash-forwards “There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself” which help the reader to get the more detailed information about the past and future life of the main character.
So, the theme of the story is the position of women in the Victorian society.
And the idea is that women need the same rights and freedom of choice like men.
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and shoved by crazy amounts of people on the same hunt.
We call a tradition; a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance that has origin from the past. Black Friday is the one tradition that I thought was the worst until reading “The Lottery,” by Shirley Jackson. Jackson uses irony to suggest an underlying evil, hypocrisy, and weakness of human kind. Jackson shows many important lessons about human nature in this short story including barbaric traditions in a supposedly civilized village, the community’s hypocrisy, and how violence and cruelty take place.
"The Lottery" tells the story of an annual tradition in a small
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superior position then the human race. Achieving this, the diction creates an effect that the narrator is going to be a huge part in the rest of the story which creates more dramatic irony when the narrator reveals stuff to us that the characters in the story will not know.
“ You will be caked in your own body.” is considered to be a metaphor. “ A scream will dribble down in the air.” is categorized as a catachresis. “ The only sound I’ll hear after that will be my own breathing, and the sound of the smell, of my footsteps.” is an example of synesthesia. “What will the sky be saying?” is an erotema.
Colors in this story play an important vital role in The Book Thief and the most important
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embrace it by love. He encourages the audience (and the readers) to start living their lives and find true love, because he has realized it, so he wants others to do as well. To emphasize the message he also uses irony in the end by asking a rhetorical question, so we are able to understand his point, “when you go out and put yourself in real relation to real people, or even animals, there’s a very real danger that you might love some of them. And who knows what might happen to you then?
[ 1 ]. P.9 l.127 – P.10, l.130.
[ 2 ]. P.9, ll.95-100.
[ 3 ]. The average percentage of social media users in the age 15-25.
[ 4 ]. P.10, l.142, “you’re
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couple is married does not necessarily mean that they are happy or are faithful to each other. Mrs. Bennet’s sole purpose in life is to find respectable and wealthy men for her daughters but she is either too foolish or does not care about her daughters’ happiness and well being after they get married. Austen uses Mr. Bennet primarily to contrast Mrs. Bennet using irony, as he openly criticizes her comments sarcastically because he cannot respect her due to her lack of intelligence. Their marriage is held together by their daughters; after their daughters all get married and leave the nest, Mr. and Mrs. Bennet’s marriage will hit some very rough patches.
Austen resorts to dialogue to describe
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deceived by those who they thought loved them most, Edgar by his half brother Edmund, and Lear by his 2 older daughters. “If it be you that stir these daughters’ hearts against their father, fool me not so much to bear it tamely; touch me with noble anger, and let not women’s weapons, water-drops, stain my man’s cheeks! No, you unnatural hags, No I shall not weep I have full cause of weeping, but this heart shall break into a hundred thousand flaws,
or ere I’ll weep. O fool, I shall go mad!” (act II scene IV) this quote shows both the betrayal of the daughters and Lear beginning to go mad. Irony is shown when Lear tells the fool who is known as a professional madman that he “shall go mad
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other. This ignobility takes away Coriolanus’ honour.
“ But tell the traitor in the highest degree. He hath abused your powers... Ay, traitor, Martius... grace thee with that robbery, thy stol’n name Coriolanus, in corioles?... betrayed your business... he whined and roared away your victory...” – line 85-102
* Aufidius uses words and phrases (beginning with ‘traitor’) that he knows will anger Coriolanus and provoke him to a rash response
* The more Aufidius insults Coriolanus, the more confident A becomes and the less rational C becomes.
2. This scene captures the battle of words rather than weaponry present between Aufidius and Coriolanus. Irony is that Coriolanus was
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way to the divisive fear pervading the second search--a search for the "Beast"--as the romance of the first part is engulfed in irony in the second. The children turn their paradisal island into a hell--and the imagery, at first apocalyptic, finds its demonic counterpart in the second part.
Single interpretations fail to deal with the paradoxical duality or multivalence of the novel's symbolism. The island is both a paradise and a prison. The sea is a translucent film that gently transforms the body of a child, in line with the Scriptural notion of the water of life; in another scene it is a monstrous leviathan that sucks up the body of another. Fire is a rescue signal, sign of hope, and a
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different actors for every character.
I really enjoyed the story of the plays, and I also thought it was very affective how well the characters and the story intertwined so well. The most interesting behavior of the characters is the interactions between Prince Hal and Sir John Falstaff, and also the irony between King Henry and his son. Prince Hal and Sir John Falstaff are bandits that rob people and deceive people, and I find it very interesting that Hal is committing these crimes while his father is the King. I also find it very stimulating that a prince is so easily affected by a sloth like Sir John Falstaff. I’m intrigued by the overall plot of the play as well. King Henry is trying to halt
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of the boys are seeking and desire. Early on in the book Ralph, the dominant leader reminds the boys of the laws to keep them in check. This soon crumbles when Jack realizes violence is the key to obtain power in their social system. Prior to the naval officer arriving on the island, Jack was trying to smoke Ralph out of hiding. “We saw your smoke. What have you been doing? Having a war or something?” (pg.201) In the book we came to realize that Jack wanted to stay on the island to be his own leader and not abide by society's laws. Ironically, it is Jacks actions, setting the forest on fire, that actually get the kids rescued by the naval officer. An example of irony is that the naval officer
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us. Her determination was extremely powerful and grabbed my
B 1. This poem was written in the period called Postmodernism. The Postmodern era is the last
half of the 20th century which was preceded by the Modernism era. Although, these two eras
do have some overlap. The term Postmodernism refers to new forms of art, music, architecture,
philosophy, performance and literature that were against the ideals of the modern era. In
Postmodernism, interpretation is the foundation. This era relies on experiences over abstract
There are five major themes of postmodernism; which are: globalization, multiculturalism,
capitalism, digitalization and irony. These are key
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, reflecting a modesty that was not a factor millennia before) Leondaro’s Vitruvian Man is a clear homage to Greek geometric ideals, where as the Milanese Horse continues the tradition of lifelike poses (a careful observer will note that the horse is caught in mid-stride, with two hooves off the ground) and exquisite anatomical detail, which is also known to us from the sketches he made while designing it. There is, finally, some irony to be found in modern classical sculpture. The Moscow metro station “Revolution Square” is known for its bronzes, done very much in the classical style, of workers and academics: the backbone of the Marxist/Leninist revolution that dispensed with the ruling class and
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line, "take up the white man's burden" shows that this idea of Imperialism was trying to send a strong message to the readers by repeating a phrase that shows force and the attitude of those who held those opinions.
My Last Duchess (534)
"My Last Duchess" is narrated by the duke of Ferrara to an envoy (representative) of another nobleman, whose daughter the duke is soon to marry. These details are revealed throughout the poem, but understanding them from the opening helps to illustrate the irony that Browning employs.
At the poem's opening, the duke has just pulled back a curtain to reveal to the envoy a portrait of his previous duchess. The portrait was painted by Fra Pandolf
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innovations that it will be hardly recognizable.
Irony is also utilized in the story. An illustration of this is where the stove is making a huge amount of food for breakfast of nonexistent humans while the dog curls up and dies of hunger. In addition, the poem which the house reads out loud talks about how nature would not care even “if mankind perished utterly”, yet the dog, one symbol of nature, also cannot survive after all. It is also highly evident in the situation where the house is overly secure that not even a bird could perch on the window sills. However, it is not able to protect itself from a fire which it is responsible for starting without external interference
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prevent manipulation by the participating banks. Their doubts were realized when the LIBOR scandal unfolded in 2012.
The LIBOR Scandal
In 2012, revelations surfaced that several opportunistic bankers conspired to manipulate the LIBOR. With minimal oversight from the BBA, these key banks colluded to submit rates that would sway the LIBOR in a favorable direction. By doing so, the banks protected their financial investments in some instances and increased gains in others.
The irony of this scheme is that the money made from trading was so great that it artificially reduced the interest rates of nearly every type of debt in the world. Banks made enough money from trading to keep interest rates
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Germans did issue the oft-quoted “blank cheque” to Austria-Hungary, it seems that none of the Great Powers “wanted war” on the enormous scale that the Alliance system made possible. The great irony that historians have struggled with is why the system which prevented war for so long and gave Europe remarkable stability broke down so tragically. The traditional answer was that the Balkans consisted of aggressive and militant nationalistic groups all vying for supremacy, whereas the explanation that the region was merely the next stage on which the Great Powers enacted their various ambitions is more plausible.
It is evident that nationalism is a major force of the twentieth century. Often
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What Is Globalization?
Globalization can be explained as a process of integration and interaction among the companies, people, and governments of different nations. It is a process explained by international trade and investment and updates by information technology. There is an amazing irony in globalization and it is that, as the world gets smaller, opportunities for growth and development become wider and better. Nowhere is this more clearly manifest than in the sphere of international trade and business relations where foreign market economies, domestic politics and diverse legal systems are linked to each other to create more advantages for the contracting states.
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downfall. He was so supportive until he was sent off by Napoleon to be slaughtered. It broke my heart reading that this happens to him after he blindly followed their leader. Clover was the one with enough brain to doubt. She knew something was off with Napoleon, but doubted herself because of the words of the pigs. She becomes the warm good-natured horse who also wished for a brighter day at animal farm. It is because of these two that I also wished for that day in animal farm.
This book gives justice to the irony of the situation. Napoleon and all the other pigs battled for equality and independence in the beginning, however they, themselves became the tyrants as time passed by. All the
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, “The Student cannot understand what the Nightingale says; for he only knew the things that are written down in books, he has too much ‘head’ knowledge and almost no ‘heart’ knowledge.”5 This indicates that people are indifferent towards other creatures and their behaviors. Here lies the irony of the story. All the efforts done by the bird were unheeded by the student who was only aware of materialism and science which enveloped his life and made him blind of others’ suffering. Wilde shows clearly how the tow worlds, the world of the bird and the world of the student can not be bridged and compromised. They are too different to meet. The bird lives for love and sacrifice, while the student, the
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theology, the General Baptist were the first of two Baptist traditions to form in England, the second being that of the Particular Baptists (Reformed) whose origins are tied to the moderate separatist Henry Jacob and his JLJ church from which, in the 1630’s, would evolve the first Particular Baptist church in London.
With the pursuit of religious liberties and freedoms being sought within the American colonies, the irony of a Puritan New England entering into the same type of compact between governmental and ecclesiastical authorities from which they fled, was not lost on those with more separatist leanings. And so it was in 1638 after having fled Massachusetts as a
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powers effectively made the presidential
office equivalent to a dictatorship, which gave the president the ability to use and abuse this
power without restraint.
The quote at the top of the page is pregnant with irony and is an example of what
can occur as a result of a strong yet corrupt executive branch. Mr. Kivuitu was the chairman
of the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK), the governmental organization that certifies
the election results. The irony is that in 2007 he certified that Kibaki won the election
apparently without actually knowing whether or not he had won. Why would he do this? As
a testimony to the imbalance of power in the executive branch, the leading ECK
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point in the future race would no longer be allowed to be a factor in admissions at all (Rosen, 2003). UM was not the only university that was sued based on affirmative action in admission policies.
In 1996, voters in the State of California passed a constitutional amendment titled Proposition 209 (Wang, 2008). Proposition 209 ended preferences based on race, gender, or any other category in all public dealings in the State of California (Wang, 2008). This amendment was challenged in court and was ruled by the Supreme Court to be constitutional (Wang, 2008). There was a bit of irony in the arguments against this amendment. One of the arguments the opponents used against Proposition 209
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due to racial profiling is certainly not a help. With current measures to abolish racial profiling failing, a new federal program to curtail this disturbing trend must be implemented immediately. The public needs to be become more involved in their government. Until these actions are taken, nothing will change. How awful to live in a world of such irony, where the very people who are supposed to protect us from injustice are those feeding it.